September 2016

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September 2016 (Complete Issue PDF)

Feature Articles

The Brave New World of Industrial Automation
One of the best things about being a journalist — whether for example it be reporting on manufacturing, politics, show business, or anything else — is being paid to “go to school” and learning about any number of things that you were perhaps ignorant of at the outset.

Opening the Envelope on Bearing Vibration
Experienced operators can often tell if a machine is not working properly, on the basis that it does not ‘sound right.’ The same principle can be applied — using modern electronics — to identify the exact cause of the problem. Sensitive accelerometers can detect and analyze the vibrations from industrial equipment, highlighting problems such as misalignment or bearing imbalance. The technique is known as vibration analysis. It can identify bearing failure in the very early stages, when there is a microscopic defect on the raceway, for example. The problem is that the identifying signal is usually drowned out in all the other noise emanating from the machine.

Mining for Solutions
Increasing pressure on many fronts is compelling mine operators to thoroughly examine every phase of their operations. Fluctuating demand that whipsaws mineral prices, government-imposed environmental regulations and rising operating costs related to maintenance downtime all pose serious challenges for the mining sector. Add pressure from customers and stakeholders for more sustainable operations as well as union demands for higher wages, and you have a scenario that requires mine operators to exercise every possible option to achieve more efficient operations.

Graco Pump Technology Solves Long-Term Pump Leaking, Dosing Issues
When trying to find a new bonding material dispense system, one manufacturer tested a series of pumps — all of which leaked due to the abrasiveness of the bonding material. The manufacturer also had been attempting to manage shot size manually with their previous system, and was not able to keep dispense consistent. The company searched for a system that could accurately dispense programmed shot sizes while also eliminating the leaking issues they had experienced with previous pumps. Graco provided a Check-Mate pump with SmartWare software, and the manufacturer is now able to automatically dispense shots of bonding material as small as one ounce without leaks.

Technical Articles

Minimum Design Speed Considerations for Sleevoil Bearings for Industrial Fan Applications
Slow speed operation of fan systems within the air handling industry is generally performed due to two reasons: a coast down operation is required for hot (induced draft) fans to cool down before shutdown (often by using a turning gear), and operational efficiency improvements can be achieved during non-peak periods by slow speed operation using a VFD. In either case, when these fans are supported by hydrodynamic bearings, it is the oil film thickness developed from the bearing-shaft interaction that limits the minimum speed that can be maintained without causing premature wear and bearing failure. This paper will present a brief overview of lubrication theory and critical design parameters to achieve slow speed operation.

An Open-And-Shut Case: Greases for Gear Applications
For the lubrication of open gear drives used in different industrial applications such as cement and coal mills, rotary furnaces, or where the sealing conditions are difficult, semi-fluid greases are often used in preference to fluid oils. For girth gear applications the greases are used with a splash or spray lubrication system. The selection of such greases influences pitting lifetime and the load-carrying capacity of the gears, as well as wear behavior

A Model for Rolling Bearing Life with Surface and Subsurface Survival - Tribological Effects
Until now the estimation of rolling bearing life has been based on engineering models that consider an equivalent stress, originated beneath the contact surface, that is applied to the stressed volume of the rolling contact. Through the years, fatigue surface–originated failures, resulting from reduced lubrication or contamination, have been incorporated into the estimation of the bearing life by applying a penalty to the overall equivalent stress of the rolling contact. Due to this simplification, the accounting of some specific failure modes originated directly at the surface of the rolling contact can be challenging. In the present article, this issue is addressed by developing a general approach for rolling contact life in which the surfaceoriginated damage is explicitly formulated into the basic fatigue equations of the rolling contact. This is achieved by introducing a function to describe surface-originated failures and coupling it with the traditional, subsurface-originated fatigue risk of the rolling contact. The article presents the fundamental theory of the new model and its general behavior. The ability of the present general method to provide an account for the surface–subsurface competing fatigue mechanisms taking place in rolling bearings is discussed with reference to endurance testing data.

Departments

Applications Abound (Publishers Page)
In a recent reader survey, you told us you wanted to see more specific examples of mechanical power transmission products and how they’re designed, upgraded, maintained and used in a wide variety of industries. In the business, we call that type of article an “application story,” and in this issue we’ve answered the call with several application stories that show how smart choices are being made about motion components in a wide variety of industries.

Proper Handling of Bearings (Bearing Briefs)
Rolling-element bearings are high-precision components that need to be stored and handled carefully to perform as designed. Proper storage and handling of a bearing before, during and after installation is important because once debris enters a bearing, it reduces the life.

Cutting Downtime in Lumber Application (Field Notes)
Ernest Head (Arnie), CBS and technical sales representative at Motion Canada helped save a lumber industry customer time and money by adapting a bearing solution for another client. Here’s how:

Product News (Product News)
News about recent products in the Industry

Calendar (Events)
Calendar of upcoming events

Industry News (Industry News)
Latest News from around the Industry

Mind Sport (Power Play)
Here’s what we know about Tremont, Illinois: It’s a small village in Tazewell County, (population 2,400+), holds an annual summer turkey festival (quite popular) and the courthouse is a famous historic site where politician James Shields challenged an “up-and-coming” lawyer named Abraham Lincoln to a duel with cavalry broad swords (they showed up, but the duel never materialized). In 2016, you can add FIRST Robotics Competition World Champion to the village’s rather eccentric list of accomplishments.