system design

Articles About system design


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1 Guidelines for Designing Better Motion Control Systems (February 2012)

Motion control systems engineers work chiefly in two well-defined areas: 1) new designs and 2) redesigns or retrofits. This article examines the best approach for each option.

2 Industry News (June 2018)

The complete Industry News section from the June 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

3 Transmissions in Transition (June 2015)

Experts gathered at the 9th CTI Symposium to discuss the challenges of reducing noise, improving energy efficiency and meeting the changing demands of the marketplace

4 Drive-Based Integrated Safety (February 2011)

While safety functions have been integrated into drives packages for some years now, the current trends are very exciting, from many angles. Today, a full complement of safety functions can be implemented at the front-end of a system design on all types of production machines, including printing, packaging, converting, materials handling and other equipment used throughout American industry.

5 Fluid Couplings vs VFDs for High Inertia Rotating Driven Loads (September 2017)

As the old adage goes, "There is more than one way to skin a cat." In the early stages of any project, system designers are faced with choices; whether they are designing a new application or retrofitting an old one, they need to determine what is the most efficient, economical and practical way of completing the task at hand. Though there are usually at least two viable means to accomplish the task, the first step is always to review and weigh the merits of each option.

6 Variable Speed Pump Drives For Industrial Machinery - System Considerations (February 2015)

The changing landscape of hydraulic drives is leading many fluid power specialists to quickly adapt to using variable speed pump drives. Optimum utilization of these drives requires, in many cases, additional system design considerations.

7 Gear Design Software (February 2013)

When it comes to gear design software, the learning curve never ends. The leading vendors offer various training programs to keep their users well-informed.

8 Engineering Showcase 2015 (March 2015)

One of our goals at Power Transmission Engineering is to help you understand, identify and select the best technology for your mechanical power transmission or motion control applications. With every project, you have to decide which components to use, and which suppliers, based on functionality, quality and price. We aim to help you make those decisions informed by providing the latest information on current technology, especially when it comes to mechanical components.

9 Gear Design Software, Engineer Beware (February 2014)

When software goes bad, what do we call it? System failure? Human failure? A virus? A number of words will work. How about this? Glitch. It has that onomatopoeic quality that fairly screams, Downtime! And with good reason -- software-generated miscalculations can have very expensive -- if not perilous -- repercussions.

10 The Small Motor Rule, How Will This Affect You (December 2014)

According to the Department of Energy (DOE), more than half of all electrical energy consumed in the U.S. is used by electric motors. To address this, several years ago, the DOE conducted a technical study as to what could be done to raise the efficiency levels of “small” motors. After years of study and litigation, the Small Motor Rule (SMR) was passed that covers two-digit NEMA frame single- and three-phase ¼ through 3 horsepower motors in open enclosures.

11 Calendar (October 2014)

The Calendar for events happening in the industry

12 High-Tech Motors Evolving from PM Muck (September 2014)

University lab's motor eliminates pricey rare-earth magnets.

13 Desktop Engineering - How to Calculate Dynamic and Static Load Ratings (February 2015)

When comparing bearing suppliers, engineers are often left with few options other than to compare dynamic load ratings and corresponding life calculations. Of course, we can look at steel and manufacturing quality; but if we are comparing sources of similar quality, those items may not provide a large contrast. It often surprises people to learn that bearing capacities are calculated values, not tested values. Lately, however, a trend is emerging for bearing suppliers to increase their ratings for higher performance bearings that have premium features such as higher quality steel and specilaized heat treatment. Bearing companies are under intense competitive pressure to make every feature add to the dynamic capacity of their bearings because it is very well understood that an increase in capacity adds to the bottom line.

14 The Modified Life Rating of Rolling Bearings: A Criterion for Gearbox Design and Reliability Optimization (March 2015)

Engineers typically learn that the bearing L10 life can be estimated using the so called “C/P method” — or the “basic rating life” of the bearing, a method rooted in the 1940s. Major developments have since led to the “modified rating life,” released in ISO 281:2007, which includes the aiso life modification factor. In this paper a succession of equations used for bearing life ratings are reviewed, and current bearing life rating practices are discussed in detail. It is shown that — despite the introduction more than 30 years ago of the adjustment factor of the basic rating life, and the standardization in 2007 of the aiso modification factor — use of these improved calculation methods are not practiced by all engineers. Indeed — many continue referring to the old model as a way of seeking compliance with existing, established practices.

15 Mathematical Modeling for the Design of Spiroid, Helical, Spiral Bevel and Worm Gears (April 2015)

Spiroid and worm gears have superior advantages for hightorque and miniaturization applications. And for this reason they are particularly preferred in aerospace, robotic and medical applications. They are typically manufactured by hobbing technology, a process with a typical overall lead time of 4 to 14 weeks.

16 Diametral Pitch Calculation (April 2015)

Circular pitch gives me the size of the teeth in my mind, but diametral pitch does not. What is the purpose of the diametral pitch concept? Does it merely avoid pi in calculation?

17 Four-Point Bearings Do Triple Duty While Saving Space (March 2015)

A four-point contact ball bearing makes it easy to simplify machine designs that combine radial, thrust and moment loads, because it can handle all three simultaneously. They are primarily used for slow-to-moderate-speed applications, or where oscillatory movement is predominant.

18 Industry News (September 2014)

The complete Industry News section from the September 2014 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

19 Wind Turbine Field and Test Rig Testing as Part of the Design Process for Gearboxes (September 2014)

The growth of worldwide energy consumption and emerging industrial markets demands an increase of renewable energy shares. The price pressure coming from coal, oil, nuclear and natural gas energy - combined with enormous worldwide production capacities for components of wind turbines - make wind energy a highly competitive market. The testing and validation of gearboxes within the test rig and the turbine environment attract a strong focus to the needs of the industry. The following contribution sums up the typical process requirements and provides examples for successful system and component verifications based on field measurements.

20 Specifying a Gear - Ask the Expert (February 2014)

A reader asks what are the required parameters to properly specify a gear.

21 Considering Energy-Efficient Motors: Don't Forget the Gearbox (February 2013)

The mechanical components of your drive system play a major role in overall system efficiency. Don't cut corners.

22 Crowning Spur Teeth - Ask the Expert - December 2013 PTE (December 2013)

When designing spur teeth, is there a formula/guideline/design guide for determining the amount of crowning?

23 High Contact Ratio Gearing: A Technology Ready for Implementation (April 2015)

Today’s competitive industrial gear marketplace demands products with excellent reliability, high capacity and low noise. Surface-hardened, ground tooth gearing predominates, but the legacy tooth forms handicap further improvements in capacity and noise generation. Vehicle and aircraft equipment use tooth forms not found in the standard tables to achieve better performance — with little or no increase in cost. This paper will propose adopting these high-contact ratio forms to industrial use.

24 Working in AutoCAD (April 2014)

How does one draw and mesh involute gear teeth in AutoCAD?

25 Ball Screws Revisited - Ask the Expert (February 2013)

A reader asks for clarification on last issue's Ask the Expert column about ball screw sizing.

26 Evolution of Worm Gear Standards and their Consequences on Load Capacity Calculation Approach (September 2014)

Beginning with a brief summary and update of the latest advances in the calculation methods for worm gears, the author then presents the detailed approach to worm gear geometry found in the revised ISO TR 10828. With that information, and by presenting examples, these new methods are explained, as are their possibilities for addressing the geometrical particularities of worm gears and their impact upon the behavior and load capacity of a gearset under working conditions based on ISO TR 14521 — Methods B and C. The author also highlights the new possibilities offered on that basis for the further evolution of load capacity calculation of a worm gearset based on load and contact pressure distribution.

27 Testing of Alternative Spiral Bevel and Hypoid Gear Theory (August 2014)

Following is a presentation of a gear design based upon a theoretically perfect gear technology, for which an overview is offered for consideration. What follows is a report on the design's testing and subsequent manufacture of a hypoid gear pair for a 1999 Ford Mustang.

28 Rolling Bearing Steels - A Technical and Historical Perspective - Part 1 (February 2013)

This paper summarizes the chemical, metallurgical and physical aspects of bearing steels and their effect on rolling bearing life and reliability.

29 Gear Design Effects on Performance of High-Speed Helical Geartrains as Used in Aerospace Drive Systems (March 2016)

The performance of high-speed helical geartrains is of particular importance for tiltrotor aircraft drive systems. These drive systems are used to provide speed reduction/torque multiplication from the gas turbine output shaft and provide the necessary offset between these parallel shafts in the aircraft. Four different design configurations have been tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center, High-Speed Helical Geartrain Test Facility. The design configurations included the current aircraft design, current design with isotropic superfinished gear surfaces, double-helical design (inward and outward pumping), increased pitch (finer teeth), and an increased helix angle. All designs were tested at multiple input shaft speeds (up to 15,000 rpm) and applied power (up to 5,000 hp). Also two lubrication, system-related, variables were tested: oil inlet temperature (160–250° F) and lubricating jet pressure (60–80 psig). Experimental data recorded from these tests included power loss of the helical system under study, the temperature increase of the lubricant from inlet to outlet of the drive system and fling-off temperatures (radially and axially). Also, all gear systems were tested with and without shrouds around the gears.

30 Linear Bearing CAD Models and More On the Fly (April 2018)

Here's what one supplier is doing to take advantage of the mobile phone in your pocket.

31 Gear Design (December 2017)

Our expert explores standard vs. optimized gears, as well as high contact ratio gearing.

32 Gear Span Measurements (August 2017)

A reader is looking for the best reference materials with formulas for gear measurements over pins.

33 Determination of Load Distributions on Double Helical-Geared Planetary Gearboxes (June 2017)

Standardized calculation methods such as ISO 6336 and DIN 3990 already exist to determine the load distributions on gears inside a planetary gearbox, but by their very universal nature, these methods offer varying results depending on the gearbox design. Double helical gears, in particular, can benefit from more specific, complex algorithms to reach a maximum level of efficiency. Double helical gears interact with the rest of the gearbox differently than helical or spur gears, and thus benefit from different analytical models outside the standardized methods. The present research project describes the algorithm to determine the load distribution of planetary gearboxes with double helical gears.

34 The Gizmo Society (June 2018)

It is hard these days to find any device that is not IoT-compatible or WiFi-connected. I recently had a new well pump installed that requires an iPhone for setup, which makes it hard for me to check or change the setup since I do not own an iPhone. In Olden Times, you had potentiometers or RS-232 connections - and that was fine.

35 Finite Element Method Based Analysis of Planetary Gear Systems Considering Backlash and Manufacturing Deviations (June 2018)

The load carrying capacity of gear transmissions depends strongly on design, material and operation conditions. Modern analysis methods, e.g. finite element analysis (FEA), consider the above parameters with more or less sufficient accuracy. Yet it remains an ongoing challenge to account for backlash and manufacturing errors, despite a definite need to do so.

36 Product News (October 2018)

The complete Product News section from the October 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

37 Holistic Simulation of Gearboxes - System Simulation (August 2018)

Gearboxes are important assemblies within mechatronic systems. During the design phase of such systems it is essential to know the gearbox behavior under consideration of dynamic interactions with its environment. Holistic system simulation helps the engineer to understand this and to improve, adjust, or optimize gearboxes and their application.

38 Thrust Cone Bearings Provide Increased Efficiency for Helical Gear Units at Moderate Speed Levels (June 2018)

Thrust cone bearings are an elegant option to handle the axial forces generated by the torque transmission in helical-toothed gear stages. They have proven as an efficient and reliable bearing concept for integrally geared compressors but are nearly unknown in other fields of gearbox engineering. The presented investigations consider three aspects which appear relevant to extend the field of possible applications for thrust cones towards gearboxes constructed with roller bearings.

39 ISO-AGMA Standards: Specific Sliding Defined (March 2017)

Does the definition of specific sliding mean the same between ISO 21771:2007 and AGMA 917-B97? In ISO, specific sliding is the ratio of the sliding speed to the speed of a transverse profile in the direction of the tangent to the profile. In AGMA, specific sliding is ratio of gear tooth sliding velocity to its rolling velocity.

40 Determining Diametral Pitch, Center Distance (October 2016)

I need help determining the diametral pitch needed to achieve the closest center-to-center distance for 2 spur gears. The 1st gear is a 34-tooth and the 2nd gear is a 28-tooth. The center-to-center distance between the gears needs to be as close to 2 1/8" as possible.

41 Homogeneous Geometry Calculation of Arbitrary Tooth Shapes: Mathematical Approach and Practical Applications (February 2016)

This paper provides a mathematical framework and its implementation for calculating the tooth geometry of arbitrary gear types, based on the basic law of gear kinematics. The rack or gear geometry can be generated in two different ways: by calculating the conjugate geometry and the line of contact of a gear to the given geometric shape of a known geometry (e.g., a cutting hob), or by prescribing the surface of action of two gears in contact and calculating the correspondent flank shapes.

42 Mutiple Gearset-Type Calculation Software (September 2015)

Is there a gear software package out there that will calculate the design of spur, helical, worm, and planetary gearsets? Also, we would like a program that calculates stresses and material selection. Finally, we would like to have the program calculate bearings loads, too. Thank you for your help.

43 Effects of Contact Ratios on Mesh Stiffness of Helical Gears for Lower Noise Design (August 2015)

In this paper, the influences of various gear parameters on the mesh stiffness are systematically investigated by using the finite element method. The comprehensive analysis shows that contact ratios are the key factors affecting the fluctuation value of mesh stiffness.

44 High-Frequency, GaN Diode-Free Motor Drive Inverter with Pure Sine Wave Output (October 2012)

This article presents the first kW-Class, 3-phase GaN-based inverter. Hard-switched at 100-kHz PWM, its heart is a 6-in-1 power module with 600-V GaN power HEMTs, achieving a new efficiency of 98.5%, a more than 2% improvement.

45 Industry News (March 2016)

News from around the industry

46 Minimum Design Speed Considerations for Sleevoil Bearings for Industrial Fan Applications (September 2016)

Slow speed operation of fan systems within the air handling industry is generally performed due to two reasons: a coast down operation is required for hot (induced draft) fans to cool down before shutdown (often by using a turning gear), and operational efficiency improvements can be achieved during non-peak periods by slow speed operation using a VFD. In either case, when these fans are supported by hydrodynamic bearings, it is the oil film thickness developed from the bearing-shaft interaction that limits the minimum speed that can be maintained without causing premature wear and bearing failure. This paper will present a brief overview of lubrication theory and critical design parameters to achieve slow speed operation.

47 Can You Develop Your Own Custom Motor-and-Motion System (June 2016)

In this century’s complex, ever- changing world of manufacturing, such capabilities as hardware and software expertise, effective location and distribution, business savvy and yes, even luck, are some of the cardinal requirements for running a successful business.

48 Rating of Asymmetric Tooth Gears (April 2016)

Asymmetric tooth gears and their rating are not described by existing gear design standards. Presented is a rating approach for asymmetric tooth gears by their bending and contact stress levels, in comparison with symmetric tooth gears, whose rating are defined by standards. This approach applies finite element analysis (FEA) for bending stress definition and the Hertzian equation for contact stress definition. It defines equivalency factors for practical asymmetric tooth gear design and rating. This paper illustrates the rating of asymmetric tooth gears with numerical examples.

49 A New Geometrically Adaptive Approach for Tooth Contact Analysis of Gear Drives (August 2015)

Tooth contact analysis (TCA) is an important tool directed to the determination of contact patterns, contact paths, and transmission errors in gear drives. In this work, a new general approach that is applicable to any kind of gear geometry is proposed.

50 Achieving High Electric Motor Efficiency (April 2012)

The use of motor structures which can concentrate magnetic flux allows ferrite PM motors to achieve performance and power densities that approach those of PM motors using rare earth magnets, but without the cost penalties and supply source concerns of rare earth magnets.

51 The Test Run (March 2016)

Modeling and simulation is a key driver of innovation. Whether it’s general manufacturing, consumer goods or life sciences, the ability to realistically model and simulate the response of parts, sub-systems and complete assemblies to increase accuracy and repeatability is vital in today’s analytical world.

52 Product News (February 2016)

Latest information about upcoming products.

53 PRODUCT NEWS (October 2015)

All about new Products

54 Product News (March 2015)

New products within the Industry

55 Product News (June 2016)

Latest news on products.

56 Industry news (August 2016)

News from around the Industry

57 Product News (February 2017)

The complete Product News section from the February 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

58 The Big Picture (February 2017)

When you work day-in and day-out with components like gears, bearings or electric motors, for example, it's easy to forget that those components are always part of a much bigger system.

59 Bearing the Brunt of Earthquakes (December 2016)

America suffers $4.4 billion in losses due to earthquakes every year. While that's a drop in the bucket for our $16 trillion plus GDP, it's still a substantial amount of money, and some people are working to lessen those losses. One group is Earthquake Protection Systems (EPS), a company that is designing bearings to better protect buildings from earthquake damage.

60 Product News (October 2014)

News about new Products in the industry.

61 Galactic Housekeeping (February 2014)

With the constant push for sustainable and environmentally friendly procedures on Earth, you'd think we’d apply the same rules high above it.

62 Product News (December 2009)

The complete Product News section from the December 2009 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

63 Product News (December 2008)

The complete product news section from the December 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

64 Product News (October 2008)

The complete product news section from the October 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering (PTE).

65 Product News (June 2008)

The complete product news section from the June 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

66 Product News (February 2010)

The complete Product News section from the February 2010 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

67 Industry News (June 2011)

The complete Industry News section from the June 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

68 PT Extras (February 2014)

PTE Video from SKF, LinkedIn contribution from Dassault Systemes, Twitter updates on IFPE 2014 and a shout-out to the Gear Technology blog.

69 Designing Drive Systems for Low-Web-Speed Applications (December 2012)

This paper will look at the solutions that current drive and motor technology can offer in not only improving tension control but also solving several other issues that are inherent to systems with high ratio gearing.

70 Product News (August 2012)

The complete Product News section from the August 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

71 Selecting and Sizing Ball Screw Drives (October 2012)

The ball screw drive is an assembly that converts rotary motion to linear motion and vice versa. The ball screw drive consists of a ball screw and a ball nut with recirculating ball bearings...

72 Product News (September 2017)

The complete Product News section from the September 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

73 Book Review: Design of Permanent-Magnet Brushless Machines (October 2010)

The latest offering by machine design experts J.R. Hendershot and T.J.E. Miller is an 822-page brushless permanent-magnet (PM) machine design book that serves as a worthy follow-up to their 1994 work.

74 Development of an Educational Engineering Workshop on Electric Vehicle and Motor Technology (June 2010)

This paper describes the development of an educational program centered on electric motor and electric vehicle technology at the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Edgerton Center.

75 Designing for Static and Dynamic Loading of a Gear Reducer Housing with FEA (February 2010)

A recent trend has been a movement to more user-friendly products in the mechanical power transmission industry. A good example of such a product is a high-horsepower, right angle, shaft-mounted drive designed to minimize installation efforts. Commonly referred to as an alignment-free type, it allows the drive package mounting to be quicker, more cost effective and require less expertise during installation. This facilitates the use of the drive in applications such as underground mining, where there is little room to maneuver parts. The most common application for the alignment-free style drive is for powering bulk material handling belt conveyors.

76 Motor System Reliability Considerations for Cost-Effective Purchasing Decisions (June 2008)

OEMs can minimize the cost of ownership by using highly efficient motors and recognizing when unreliable motors are driving up the operating costs of their applications.

77 A Present State and Future Vision of Motor Drive Technology (December 2010)

One of the driving forces behind the industrial revolution was the invention—more than a century ago—of the electric motor. Its widespread use for all kinds of mechanical motion has made life simpler and has ultimately aided the advancement of humankind. And the advent of the inverter that facilitated speed and torque control of AC motors has propelled the use of electric motors to new realms that were inconceivable just a mere 30 years ago. Advances in power semiconductors—along with digital controls—have enabled realization of motor drives that are robust and can control position and speed to a high degree of precision. The use of AC motor drives has also resulted in energy savings and improved system efficiency. This paper reviews the development and application of inverter technology to AC motor drives and presents a vision for motor drive technology.

78 Development of an Actuator for Ambient to Cryo Application (December 2010)

During the qualification campaign of the NIRSpec (near-infrared spectrometer) instrument mechanism, the actuator could not achieve the expected lifetime that had been extended during the development phase. The initial design could not be adapted to the requested number of revolutions during that phase. Consequently the actuator needed to be modified so that the function of the mechanism would not be endangered or, by extension, the overall function of the NIRSpec instrument. The modification included a change of the overall actuator design—internal dimensions, tolerances, materials, lubrication and assembly process—while keeping the interface to the mechanism, mass and function.

79 The Things that Move Us (October 2012)

You may have noticed that the magazine looks different this issue. The new look is part of an overall effort to refine our focus. We wanted to make clear to potential subscribers and advertisers how this magazine is different, why its content is important and where it fits in the marketplace.

80 Gearbox Bearing Service Life: A Matter of Mastering Many Design Parameters (April 2012)

The availability of high-strength shaft materials, in combination with bearings with high carrying capacity, allows use of slimmer shafts. However, the modulus of elasticity remains the same, so seat design for bearings and gears must be given close attention.

81 Opportunities Amidst Crises (February 2011)

Energy-challenged industries--and countries--can benefit from improved motor design and materials.

82 Gear Expo 2017 Booth Previews (September 2017)

Highlights from some of the gear, gear drive, power transmission component, software, materials and related exhibitors at Gear Expo 2017.

83 Improved Fuel and Energy Efficiency Through Optimized Bearing Design and Selection (February 2008)

Today, better fuel economy is a main objective in the automotive development process. It remains top-of-mind with the auto industry and consumers because of costs and environmental impacts. Because the industry’s average fuel-economy standard is required to increase by 40 percent by 2020, manufacturers and engineers are working to develop fuel-efficient, environmentally friendly and reliable designs for vehicles.

84 Product News (February 2018)

The latest mechanical power transmission products from Nord Drivesystems, Gearing Solutions, Ogura Industrial, Stafford Manufacturing, Rexnord, Portescap, Steinmeyer, Intellidrives, J.W. Winco and Zero-Max.

85 Gear Expo 2017 Follow-Up (December 2017)

The following recap looks at some of the exhibitors from Gear Expo that manufacture mechanical power transmission components or provide resources for these components.

86 Gear Expo 2017 Showstoppers (September 2017)

This special advertising section features some of our VIP exhibitors.

87 Engineering Showcase - Couplings (August 2018)

This issue Engineering Showcase features some of the leading suppliers of couplings.

88 Purchasing Efficiency (September 2018)

You may have noticed a lot of merger and acquisition activity lately in the power transmission industry. What does it mean?

89 Stable and Streamlined (September 2018)

Gear drives focus on longevity, quality and customization.

90 Rolling-Element Bearing Analysis (June 2013)

This article describes how more sophisticated modeling techniques allow the latest software to identify design issues with bearings, shafts, gears and complicated multi-body systems.

91 Product News (September 2018)

The complete Product News section from the September 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

92 Industry News (September 2018)

The complete Industry News section from the September 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

93 Electric Vehicles Need Quieter Gears (October 2014)

For Mark Findlay of UK specialist driveline consultancy Drive System Design, reducing gear noise to suit the low noise levels in an electric vehicle cabin has meant throwing away the rule book.

News Items About system design

1 RSF Electronik MSA 37x Feedback Encoder System Designed for Motion Applications (July 17, 2015)
RSF Elektronik now offers a linear motion feedback encoder system that is designed for machines with loose mechanical motion during ...

2 Hägglunds TADS Hydraulic Drive System Designed for Limited Space Applications (September 1, 2015)
Hägglunds recently introduced the TADS hydraulic drive system from Bosch Rexroth as a self-contained drive package for applications ...

3 Haydon Kerk WGS Integrated Screw/Slide System Designed for Stability and Speed (September 10, 2015)
Haydon Kerk Motion Solutions recently added the WGS (Wide Guide Screw) to its linear slide product line. Made from the same components us...

4 Drive System Design Opens Test Facility on Improving Driveline Efficiency (April 10, 2018)
A new test facility has been developed in Michigan to help vehicle manufacturers and their suppliers increase the efficiency of vehicle...