motor drives

Articles About motor drives


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1 A Present State and Future Vision of Motor Drive Technology (December 2010)

One of the driving forces behind the industrial revolution was the invention—more than a century ago—of the electric motor. Its widespread use for all kinds of mechanical motion has made life simpler and has ultimately aided the advancement of humankind. And the advent of the inverter that facilitated speed and torque control of AC motors has propelled the use of electric motors to new realms that were inconceivable just a mere 30 years ago. Advances in power semiconductors—along with digital controls—have enabled realization of motor drives that are robust and can control position and speed to a high degree of precision. The use of AC motor drives has also resulted in energy savings and improved system efficiency. This paper reviews the development and application of inverter technology to AC motor drives and presents a vision for motor drive technology.

2 Honing a Competitive Advantage (December 2009)

Sunnen grows product portfolio with motion control solution from Siemens.

3 Motoring Ahead (August 2011)

Synchronous motors controlled by variable speed drives are bringing higher efficiencies to industrial applications.

4 Soft Starters vs. Variable Speed - Or Both (June 2011)

Given that many different hydraulic systems recommend the use of either frequency converters or cyclic control (soft starter technologies), the question must be asked - Which one of these solutions is the most cost-effective in reducing energy consumption and providing the most satisfactory payback time?

5 Airport Baggage Handling: Queue Conveyor Design from a Gearmotor Perspective (February 2011)

The primary driver of an airport baggage handling queue conveyor must be able to operate under increasingly demanding operating conditions, including frequent starting and stopping. The selection of the primary driver of the queue conveyor is dependent on multiple criteria, including dimensional requirements and durability characteristics.

6 Familiar Goals, New Solutions (October 2017)

Gearmotor manufacturers find new ways to push the envelope. (With Sidebar on new alternative to planetary gearboxes)

7 Mechanical Motion in Tight Spaces (March 2018)

Framo Morat and Dunkermotoren Produce Drive Systems for Automatic Guided Vehicles.

8 When it Comes to Mining, Bigger is Best (June 2015)

One of the key challenges in the mining industry today is maintaining throughput in the face of ore grade quality that has declined by 40 percent in the last decade.

9 University Improves Sustainability of HVAC Motors in Platinum LEED Building (April 2012)

A new preventive maintenance program at a leading New England Ivy League university demonstrates how the push for more sustainable "green" building management has led to a growing awareness of a chronic, widespread problem with HVAC motors—electrical bearing damage and failure.

10 Product News (December 2013)

The complete Product News section from the December 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

11 The Workhorse of Industry: The Induction Motor (December 2013)

A brief overview of the induction motor, including the basics of construction, performance and variable speed drives.

12 Drive and Motor Basics (October 2013)

A discussion of the basics in DC drives, DC motors, AC drives, AC motors and synchronous motors.

13 Bearing Protection Needed if Inverter-Duty Motors Are to Live up to their Name (August 2012)

All major manufacturers of 3-phase AC induction motors offer "inverter-duty" or "inverter-ready” models, but while these motors have inverter-rated insulation to protect the windings, the bearings--their most vulnerable parts--are too often ignored.

14 Pushing the Envelope(s) (September 2015)

With advances in modern technology reducing demand for envelopes, manufacturers are finding it increasingly hard to justify investment.

15 Nervy Enterprise and Edgy Engineering: A Cant-Miss Mix (June 2012)

Fairchild International, a U.S.-based manufacturer of underground mining equipment, has produced battery-powered DC scoops since the early 1980s. With 17 different models available, Fairchild offers a size to fit any coal mining operation, making it the leader in the industry.

16 Baldor Motor Basics Part 11 (March 2018)

Explosion-Proof Motors in Division 2 Areas and DC Drive Fundamentals

17 Drive-Based Integrated Safety (February 2011)

While safety functions have been integrated into drives packages for some years now, the current trends are very exciting, from many angles. Today, a full complement of safety functions can be implemented at the front-end of a system design on all types of production machines, including printing, packaging, converting, materials handling and other equipment used throughout American industry.

18 Lightweight, Highly Efficient Drive System (February 2017)

This paper presents a joint project conducted by Ashwoods Electric Motors and Oerlikon Fairfield that uses planetary drives with an integrated electric motor. Current solutions used in production of off-highway vehicles rely upon large, heavy and inefficient brushed DC or induction motors, coupled to a planetary gearbox. This presents a number of challenges to the vehicle designers such as: limited vehicle range, limited space around the motor/drivetrain, and motor durability. The proposed integrated system utilizes an Oerlikon Fairfield Torque Hub, widely used in off-highway vehicles, and the Ashwoods first-to-market, interior permanent magnet motor. How these products are integrated, i.e. incorporating a brake solution, represents a market-changing product. Using interior permanent magnet (IPM) technology in the motor design means the motor can be up to 70% lighter, 70% smaller and 20% more efficient than traditional motors used in off-highway traction applications.

19 Baldor Basics: Understanding Torque (April 2017)

In the process of applying industrial drive products, we occasionally are misled into believing that we are applying horsepower. The real driving force is not horsepower - it is torque. This paper is developed to impart a deeper understanding of torque, its relationship to horsepower, and the types of loads we most frequently encounter.

20 Historic Danish Theatre Gets a Facelift (April 2009)

The Royal Danish Theatre has occupied the heart of Copenhagen for centuries and recently upgraded to a new control system featuring Sprint Electric DC drives to extend the lives of the existing motors, keeping replacement costs down. The Swedish stage design and technology company Visual Act retained most of the original motors and mechanics while providing a much-needed facelift to the stage.

21 Six Keys to Sustainable Manufacturing (February 2009)

The federal government estimates that manufacturing uses about one third of the energy consumed in the U.S., so manufacturing companies can play an important role in building a sustainable future.

22 A Mechanical Healthcare Plan (June 2018)

Motor Operation Gets Big Boost from Smart Technology (Here's How to Take Advantage)

23 Product News (June 2018)

Elastic housing deformation by MESYS, plus new motors, actuators, gear drives and more.

24 Now That Is Smart Manufacturing! (February 2017)

A machine called Sub1 Reloaded solved a Rubik's Cube in 637 thousandths of a second in Munich.

25 Why Direct Drive (March 2017)

In today's highly competitive world, the better someone understands the advantages and benefits of direct drive technology, then the more they will have an advantage in machine building, giving them an edge over their competition.

26 Industry News (March 2018)

The complete Industry News section from the March 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

27 Product News (April 2018)

New servo drives, gear pumps, stepper motors and more.

28 Baldor Motor Basics: Part 12 (April 2018)

The final installment in our Baldor Motor Basics series covers 50 Hz requirements, as well as motors wet or damp environments.

29 Keeping the Lights on - Machine Monitoring Basics (June 2018)

As manufacturers continually search for ways to cut costs and increase ROI, machine monitoring and predictive maintenance (PdM) solutions are an increasingly cost-effective way for plants and factories to help reduce process downtime.

30 Analyzing Synchronous Belt Failure (October 2009)

If you’re replacing your belts more than once per year, it’s time to analyze your drive. From belt crimping damage to high belt installation tension to sprocket misalignment and adverse environmental conditions, this guide walks you through how to identify the reasons behind premature failure and makes recommendations on corrective and preventive measures.

31 Baldor Basics: Motors (December 2016)

Beginning with this initial installment , and with the gracious permission of ABB/Baldor Electric, we are pleased to announce the beginning of a new series -- Baldor Basics: Motors. This is a collection of basicsdriven, motor-intensive articles authored by former Baldor engineer Edward Cowern, PE, a respected name by many in the electric motor industry. During his tenure at Baldor, Cowern - now enjoying his retirement - was tasked with producing a number of motor- and basics-related tutorials, primarily in response to a steady flow of customer questions regarding motors. Today's customers continue to ask questions and seek answers to address their various motor-related issues. As with Cowern's original introduction to the series, we hope you find these articles useful and would appreciate any comments or thoughts you might have for future improvements, corrections or topics.

32 Soft Drink Solutions (December 2009)

Servo system from Bosch-Rexroth helps create more efficient beverage palletizer.

33 Baldor Basics: Motors (February 2017)

This issue we cover frame sizes and two-speed motors in our continuing series of articles, courtesy of Baldor Electric, dedicated to motor basics.

34 Product News (June 2009)

The complete product news section from the June 2009 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

35 Design of Plastic Microgear Teeth for Mass Production with High Manufacturing Tolerances for a Medical Device (March 2018)

Microgears for some types of medical technology need to be inexpensively mass produced. But at the same time, they need to be both precise and reliable, even though their design lifetime is relatively short. Here's how microgears were developed for blood glucose measuring devices, insulin pumps for diabetics and other very small devices.

36 Industry News (February 2008)

The complete Industry News section from the February 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering

37 Mold Machining Center Maintains Accuracy (June 2008)

Entrust enlists Advanced Machine & Engineering for 7-axis, 2-spindle performance.

38 Simulation Software Provides a Different Set of Tools for Motor Efficiency (June 2018)

While some organizations focus on real-world analytics and data collection for predictive maintenance, simulation tools and virtual prototyping can be another solution for motor efficiency.

39 Baldor Basics: Motors (March 2017)

This issue our Baldor Basics series continues with the topics of motor temperature ratings and metric motors.

40 Miniature Motion Solutions (June 2017)

Motor technology thrives in aerospace/defense applications.

41 Motors and Mechatronics - Moving to a Higher Plane (September 2017)

This is an article about motors - preventive motor maintenance, actually. And something else - mechatronics. In today's high-tech manufacturing and industrial use environments, it is near impossible to talk about equally complex motor maintenance and repair-or-replace protocols without it.

42 Baldor Motor Basics: Electric Motors and Power Systems and Electric Motors and Voltage (September 2017)

Part 1: There seems to be a lot of confusion about the voltage standards for motors and why they are structured the way they are. Part 2: The effect of low voltage on electric motors is pretty widely known and understood, but the effect of high voltage on motors is frequently misunderstood.

43 The Reliability of Sewer Robots (September 2017)

Faulhaber Provides Motor Technology for Pipe Renovation Projects

44 Product News (September 2017)

The complete Product News section from the September 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

45 How to Select a DC Motor: Coreless and Iron Core Brushed DC Motors (June 2017)

DC motors possess linear relationships that allow for very predictable operation. For instance, if enough voltage is applied across the terminals of a DC motor, the output shaft will spin at a rate proportional to that applied voltage. You can take the ratio of the applied voltage over the rated voltage and multiply that number by the no load speed and get the running speed.

46 Six Key Elements of Gearmotor Optimization (August 2017)

How to Ensure Reliable Performance, Increased Efficiency and Lowest Total Cost of Ownership.

47 Baldor Motor Basics: Factors that Determine Industrial Electric Bills (August 2017)

A good deal of confusion exists regarding the factors that determine an industrial electric bill. The following information is presented to help sort out the various items on which billing is based, and to offer suggestions on measures to help control and reduce electric utility bills.

48 Product News (June 2017)

The complete Product News section from the June 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

49 Total System Efficiency (February 2010)

Much of the industrial energy being consumed by systems is wasted through inefficiency. For this article, a system will be defined as the following components working together: electrical input power, variable frequency drives, induction motors, gearboxes and transmission elements (chains, belts, etc.).

50 Copper in Motor Repair Facilities (March 2017)

Three electric motor repair facilities share best practices for utilizing copper in motor repair, and recommending new motors to replace older, less-efficient motors

51 How to Select Motors for Hazardous Locations - Baldor Motor Basics Part 10 (February 2018)

Failure to specify the proper motor for use in a hazardous location can have serious consequences - lost production, extensive property damage, and even loss of human life. Selection of the proper motor requires an understanding of Underwriters Laboratories' (UL) and National Electrical Code (NEC) class, group and division designations and the T code letters.

52 Baldor Basics: Applications (June 2017)

Fans, blowers and other funny loads are addressend, along with RMS Horsepower loading.

53 Industry News (March 2017)

The complete Industry News section from the March 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

54 Emerging Motor Technologies (February 2018)

Copper's continuing role in energy-efficient motor development.

55 Baldor Motor Basics: Premium Efficiency Motors (October 2017)

Conservation through lighting alterations using different bulbs, ballasts and light sources is well understood and easy to achieve. The use of improved efficiency three phase induction motors has not been as accepted. There are a number of reasons why conservation efforts with motors have not been as popular.

56 Baldor Motor Basics - Part 9 (December 2017)

Amps, Watts, Power Factor and Efficiency; Approximate Load Data from Amperage Readings; Power Factor Correction on Single-Induction Motors.

57 Efficiency of Design (February 2018)

Energy efficiency is for more than just motors. Here are some mechatronics companies making sure you get more bang for your buck when it comes to your power bill.

58 Saving Time with Auto-Tuning Drives (March 2017)

If there are two things that are in tight supply in the industry, it's time and talent. Manufacturers are always pressured to do more faster, and the industry is producing fewer experts to help them do it, so the industry's had to get crafty and find what time-cutting procedures they can.

59 Compact Loaders for Compact Spaces (February 2012)

Compact loaders are employed where large machines have no access or are over dimensioned. New hydrostatic drives from ZF meet the demanding needs of this market.

60 High Gear Ratio Epicyclic Drives (June 2016)

Referencing a June 2014 Article, “High Gear Ratio Epicyclic Drives Analysis,” by Dr. Alex Kapelevich: I have designed a small compound epicyclic gearbox with common planets. Sun = 10 teeth Planet = 14 teeth Ring Gear stationary = 38 teeth Ring gear output = 41 teeth profile shifted onto a 38 tooth pitch diameter. Carriers are simply cages for the planet alignment and location. According to your article, and according to my calculations and the prototype I have built, my inputto- output ratio is a reduction of 65.6:1. I am using a ~ VG1 viscosity grease and Nylatron materials for the gears and carriers.

61 An Open-And-Shut Case: Greases for Gear Applications (September 2016)

For the lubrication of open gear drives used in different industrial applications such as cement and coal mills, rotary furnaces, or where the sealing conditions are difficult, semi-fluid greases are often used in preference to fluid oils. For girth gear applications the greases are used with a splash or spray lubrication system. The selection of such greases influences pitting lifetime and the load-carrying capacity of the gears, as well as wear behavior

62 Timing Belts and Pulleys - Operations (December 2016)

Synchronous drives are especially well-suited for low-speed, high-torque applications. Their positive driving nature prevents potential slippage associated with V-belt drives, and even allows significantly greater torque carrying capability. Small pitch synchronous drives operating at speeds of 50 ft/min (0.25 m/s) or less are considered to be low-speed. Care should be taken in the drive selection process as stall and peak torques can sometimes be very high. While intermittent peak torques can often be carried by synchronous drives without special considerations, high cyclic peak torque loading should be carefully reviewed.

63 Better Energy-Efficient Flow Rate Regulation (December 2016)

Implementing a power-on-demand concept based on variable speed drives allows for energy saving in any application that involves pumps or hydraulic systems. And when used in combination with an intelligent wiring and communication system, relevant machine data can also be easily recorded - the basis for comprehensive power management.

64 Product News (June 2016)

Latest news on products.

65 Gear Design Effects on Performance of High-Speed Helical Geartrains as Used in Aerospace Drive Systems (March 2016)

The performance of high-speed helical geartrains is of particular importance for tiltrotor aircraft drive systems. These drive systems are used to provide speed reduction/torque multiplication from the gas turbine output shaft and provide the necessary offset between these parallel shafts in the aircraft. Four different design configurations have been tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center, High-Speed Helical Geartrain Test Facility. The design configurations included the current aircraft design, current design with isotropic superfinished gear surfaces, double-helical design (inward and outward pumping), increased pitch (finer teeth), and an increased helix angle. All designs were tested at multiple input shaft speeds (up to 15,000 rpm) and applied power (up to 5,000 hp). Also two lubrication, system-related, variables were tested: oil inlet temperature (160–250° F) and lubricating jet pressure (60–80 psig). Experimental data recorded from these tests included power loss of the helical system under study, the temperature increase of the lubricant from inlet to outlet of the drive system and fling-off temperatures (radially and axially). Also, all gear systems were tested with and without shrouds around the gears.

66 Chains and Belts Play to Their Strengths (December 2015)

As with just about everything else in the manufacturing world — and all which that universe entails — it depends. After all, that’s why the art of manufacturing is a process — not a one-system-fits-all discipline. Yes, once that process has been properly designed and correctly implemented for a given manufacturing production need, it may well run like the astest, smoothest cookie-cutter-type operation ever devised.

67 Effect of Assembly Errors in Back-to-Back Gear Efficiency Testing (December 2015)

As gear efficiency is improved in small steps, it is important to be able to distinguish actual improvements from scatter that can occur while testing. An FZG back-to-back gear test rig was used to investigate how the assembly and re-assembly of the same test setup affects the measurements. A spread in torque loss between one assembly and another of the same test setup were observed. Rig conditions also affected the spread in input torque. With knowledge of how the spread in torque loss varies due to assembly, test results could be distinguished between changes due to assembly and actual differences between tests.

68 Product News (February 2016)

Latest information about upcoming products.

69 Two-stage Helical Bevel Gearing (February 2016)

Gearing is an essential component in conveyors. The material handling industry appears divided between those who favor high-end three-stage helical bevel gearboxes and those who rely on less expensive worm gearing. But there’s an often over-looked alternative, the two-stage helical bevel gearbox.

70 How to Prevent Pulley Slippage (February 2017)

I'm not able to get a good connection between the pulley and shaft in my drive assembly. Could you explain the various ways of connecting a pulley to a shaft to prevent the pulley from slipping?

71 Determination of Load Distributions on Double Helical-Geared Planetary Gearboxes (June 2017)

Standardized calculation methods such as ISO 6336 and DIN 3990 already exist to determine the load distributions on gears inside a planetary gearbox, but by their very universal nature, these methods offer varying results depending on the gearbox design. Double helical gears, in particular, can benefit from more specific, complex algorithms to reach a maximum level of efficiency. Double helical gears interact with the rest of the gearbox differently than helical or spur gears, and thus benefit from different analytical models outside the standardized methods. The present research project describes the algorithm to determine the load distribution of planetary gearboxes with double helical gears.

72 The Development of Worm Drives (February 2018)

A worm drive is a geared power transmission device in which a worm meshes with a worm gear to transmit power between two non-intersecting shafts that are oriented at a right angle. The worm drive has been an active and challenging topic of technological study since Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519).

73 A New Standardizable Calculation Method to Predict the Efficiency of Worm Gear Drives (March 2018)

In this work a physically based method for the tribological investigation of worm gears is presented.

74 Pushing Forward with Belts and Chains (June 2018)

The technology continues to evolve in chain- and belt-driven systems

75 Custom Machine and Tool Bolsters Accuracy and Efficiency for Vande Berg Scales (June 2018)

If you can find that magic bullet that will reduce the machining process, you can achieve meaningful efficiency gains. It is imperative that check-weighers or in-motion weighing systems remain both accurate and efficient while attaining a consistently smooth operation because they dynamically weigh products as they move across the belt.

76 Product News (February 2018)

The latest mechanical power transmission products from Nord Drivesystems, Gearing Solutions, Ogura Industrial, Stafford Manufacturing, Rexnord, Portescap, Steinmeyer, Intellidrives, J.W. Winco and Zero-Max.

77 Eats, Drinks and Treats (September 2017)

Process Expo and Pack Expo Highlight the Latest Technology for Food & Beverage Applications.

78 Gear Expo is for Gear Buyers (September 2017)

Most of you who read this magazine have a close relationship with gears and gear drives. According to our surveys, 75% of you recommend, specify or buy them. It's a shame, then, that the majority of you will miss Gear Expo (Oct. 24-26 in Columbus, OH) this year.

79 Gear Expo 2017 Booth Previews (September 2017)

Highlights from some of the gear, gear drive, power transmission component, software, materials and related exhibitors at Gear Expo 2017.

80 Fluid Couplings vs VFDs for High Inertia Rotating Driven Loads (September 2017)

As the old adage goes, "There is more than one way to skin a cat." In the early stages of any project, system designers are faced with choices; whether they are designing a new application or retrofitting an old one, they need to determine what is the most efficient, economical and practical way of completing the task at hand. Though there are usually at least two viable means to accomplish the task, the first step is always to review and weigh the merits of each option.

81 Is Splash Lubrication Compatible with Efficient Gear Units for High-Speed Applications (October 2015)

A thermo-mechanical model of a splash lubricated one-stage gear unit is presented. This system corresponds to a first step towards the design of a hybrid vehicle gearbox that can operate up to 40,000 rpm on its primary shaft. The numerical model is based on the thermal network method and takes into account power losses due to teeth friction, rolling-elements bearings and oil churning. Some calculations underline that oil churning causes a high amount of power loss. A simple method to reduce this source of power losses is presented, and its influence on the gear unit efficiency and its thermal capacity is computed.

82 A New Geometrically Adaptive Approach for Tooth Contact Analysis of Gear Drives (August 2015)

Tooth contact analysis (TCA) is an important tool directed to the determination of contact patterns, contact paths, and transmission errors in gear drives. In this work, a new general approach that is applicable to any kind of gear geometry is proposed.

83 When a Good Gear Drive System Goes Bad (October 2012)

Even when the critical components of industrial power transmission gear drive systems are properly designed, specified and manufactured consistent with application requirements, performance problems can develop over time and failure may follow.

84 The Fundamentals of Specifying and Selecting Gear Drives (December 2012)

Gear drives deliver power to industrial equipment such as bulk material conveyors, mixers, pumps and paper mills. The reliability that translates into greater uptime and profitability begins by specifying and selecting the proper drives for these critical applications.

85 Gears and Gear Drives Product Focus (February 2013)

Our product focus includes the latest technology in gears and gear drives from the leading manufacturers.

86 Traversing Steep Slopes (February 2013)

Hydrostatic drive concept gives LinsiTrak flexibility and versatility.

87 Getting Creative (October 2012)

Beverage industry conveyor pours on advantages in distribution center. Case study describes the new conveying systems at Motion Industries Canada.

88 Product News (June 2012)

The complete Product News section from the June 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

89 Gear Drive Selection Process for the Parcel Handling Industry (August 2011)

This article is designed to help describe the selection process of a reducer to be used in the parcel handling industry. It will go over the different applications for which gearboxes are used throughout parcel handling facilities such as UPS, FedEx and DHL.

90 Product News (December 2011)

The complete Product News section from the December 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

91 Electric Automation Trends Discovered at SPS-IPC Drives 2011 (December 2011)

SPS-IPC Drives 2011, which took place in Nuremburg, Germany in November, covered all components down to complete systems and integrated solutions in the electric automation industry.

92 Making Shakespeare Shine (October 2016)

New things are invented for theater lighting all the time and they’re usually big, expensive technology-driven devices. It’s the simple things that make you wonder, “Why didn’t I think of that?” according to Ken Billington, lighting designer. The RSC Lightlock is a great example of this.

93 Considering Energy-Efficient Motors: Don't Forget the Gearbox (February 2013)

The mechanical components of your drive system play a major role in overall system efficiency. Don't cut corners.

94 Industry News (August 2013)

The complete Industry News section from the August 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

95 How to Get the Most Realistic Efficiency Calculation for Gearboxes (April 2015)

In recent years the estimation of gearbox power loss is attracting more interest — especially in the wind turbine and automotive gearbox industry — but also in industrial gearboxes where heat dissipation is a consideration as well. As new transmissions concepts are being researched to meet both ecological and commercial demands, a quick and reliable estimation of overall efficiency becomes inevitable in designing the optimal gearbox.

96 Product News (June 2015)

News about latest Products in the Industry

97 Calculation of the Efficiency of Worm Gear Drives (June 2015)

This paper presents a physically grounded calculation method to determine the efficiency of worm gear drives. This computation is based on the Institute of Machine Elements, Gears, and Transmissions (MEGT) tribological simulation, which can determine the local tooth friction coefficients (Ref. 1). With this knowledge other power losses such as the bearings, oil churnings and seals power losses can also be calculated.

98 Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Frictional Losses of Radial Shaft Seals for Industrial Gearbox (June 2015)

The improvement of the energy efficiency of industrial gear motors and gearboxes is a common problem for many gear unit manufacturers and end-users. As is typical of other mechanical components, the radial lip seals used in such units generate friction and heat, thus contributing to energy losses of mechanical systems. There exist today simulation tools that are already helping improve the efficiency of mechanical systems — but accurate models for seal frictional losses need to be developed. In this paper SKF presents an engineering model for radial lip seal friction based on a physical approach.

99 Variable Speed Pump Drives For Industrial Machinery - System Considerations (February 2015)

The changing landscape of hydraulic drives is leading many fluid power specialists to quickly adapt to using variable speed pump drives. Optimum utilization of these drives requires, in many cases, additional system design considerations.

100 The Applications of Bevel Gears (December 2014)

EDITORS’ NOTE: “The Applications of Bevel Gears” is the excerpted third chapter of Dr. Hermann Stadtfeld’s latest book — Gleason Bevel Gear Technology (The Gleason Works, Rochester, New York, USA; All rights reserved. 2014; ISBN 978-0-615-96492-8.), which appears here unabridged through the kind graces of Dr. Stadtfeld and Gleason Corp. Future installments will appear exclusively in Power Transmission Engineering and Gear Technology magazine over the next 12 to 18 months.

101 Musical Gearboxes (October 2013)

Dave Soma, the mechanical supervisor at Leland Olds Station, a coal-fired power plant near Stanton, North Dakota, says he and his maintenance team care deeply about keeping the plant running and providing people electricity, especially in the dead of winter.

102 How to Spec a Mill Gear (February 2014)

This paper outlines the design considerations that go into construction of a drive system in order to explain the importance of specific data, why it is required, and where design freedom is necessary. Apart from loads and speeds, interface dimensions and site specific conditions are also needed. Deciding up front which gear rating practice to select can affect the torque capacity of the drive train by ~15%.

103 The Automated Parking Garage (September 2014)

ContiTech and Wöhr Team up for Unique Residential Solution.

104 Product Focus: Gears and Gear Drives (February 2011)

In this special news section, the editors of Power Transmission Engineering have gathered the latest product news and information from the gears and gear drives sector.

105 Can You Develop Your Own Custom Motor-and-Motion System (June 2016)

In this century’s complex, ever- changing world of manufacturing, such capabilities as hardware and software expertise, effective location and distribution, business savvy and yes, even luck, are some of the cardinal requirements for running a successful business.

106 Microprocessor-Controlled Prosthetic Leg (June 2011)

A new solution has been developed around the use of microprocessor-controlled prostheses. Just like natural limbs, these can react automatically, adapting to the current situation.

107 Step Motor Lower-Loss Technology - an Update (October 2011)

The demand for stepping motors with high efficiency and low losses has been increasing right along with the existing focus on high torque. The selection of the most suitable grade and improvement in the fastening of the laminated cores has reduced losses significantly at their peak when compared to conventional stepping motors.

108 Industry News (October 2011)

The complete Industry News section from the October 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

109 New Motor Technology (April 2013)

Novatorque energy efficient motors, Portescap smaller-size brushless DC motors, Pittman customized motors, Kollmorgen stainless steel motors, Crouzet expanded motor series, and a report from IHS on rare earth mineral supply.

110 Development of the Upgraded DC Brush Gearmotor for Spacebus Platforms (April 2011)

The obsolescence of materials and processes in the manufacture of traditional DC brush gearmotors has necessitated the development of an upgraded DC brush gearmotor.

111 Exploring All Motor Options (April 2011)

Q&A with Harald Poesch, product marketing manager for servomotors at Siemens Drive Technologies.

112 Opportunities Amidst Crises (February 2011)

Energy-challenged industries--and countries--can benefit from improved motor design and materials.

113 The Green Spin: Baldor Redefines Cooling Tower Performance (February 2011)

The Baldor Reliance RPM AC Cooling Tower Direct Drive Motor is designed exclusively for the cooling tower industry. This motor combines the technologies of the power-dense, laminated frame RPM AC motor with high performance, permanent magnet salient pole rotor designs.

114 Motors Technology Update (April 2011)

The latest in motors technology from leading manufacturers.

115 Optimizing Drive Systems for Energy Savings (February 2012)

In looking for potential opportunities to reduce energy consumption via the drive system, a number of areas should be considered.

116 Achieving High Electric Motor Efficiency (April 2012)

The use of motor structures which can concentrate magnetic flux allows ferrite PM motors to achieve performance and power densities that approach those of PM motors using rare earth magnets, but without the cost penalties and supply source concerns of rare earth magnets.

117 Cruising with Curiosity (December 2012)

Power Transmission Components from Forest City Gear, Kaydon Bearings and Maxon Motors help power NASA's Curiosity Mars Rover.

118 Motion, Drive and Automation at Hannover Messe 2013 (February 2013)

Power transmission and motion control companies will be on-hand during Hannover Messe 2013 to display the latest technology offerings in key product categories including roller bearings, gears, pumps, motors, transmissions, drive system components, clutches and braking systems.

119 Brush DC Motor Runs Along (August 2013)

Everything started in 1800 when Volta developed the first DC battery. Faraday used the DC battery to develop the first electric motor. It used brushes to transfer the battery voltage and current to the rotating disk rotor. This was in mid-1831. Thus was born the brush DC motor.

120 Microstepping Tutorial (October 2013)

This article describes the challenges involved in designing and implementing microstepping systems.

121 High-Frequency, GaN Diode-Free Motor Drive Inverter with Pure Sine Wave Output (October 2012)

This article presents the first kW-Class, 3-phase GaN-based inverter. Hard-switched at 100-kHz PWM, its heart is a 6-in-1 power module with 600-V GaN power HEMTs, achieving a new efficiency of 98.5%, a more than 2% improvement.

122 Industry News (August 2012)

The complete Industry News section from the August 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

123 Predictive Motor Maintenance (PdM): Use it or Lose it (Money) (June 2012)

Regardless of where you do business, when discussing, analyzing or worrying about “The Economy” these days, you’re not thinking Main Street - you’re thinking global. With that stipulation, it is also accepted wisdom that quality products and sharp pencils are not enough to be and remain competitive. Accordingly, everyone is looking for an edge, an advantage, in order to beat back - or at least keep up with - the competition.

124 The Painful Birth of the DC Electric Motor (June 2012)

Defined in rudimentary terms, an electric motor is a device that uses electricity to create mechanical force. But in 1834, when our story takes place, most people would have trouble understanding the ramifications. That was the year that one of the earliest DC electric motors was invented—by a blacksmith.

125 Electromagnetic Know-How (August 2012)

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software can be used for a variety of mechanical engineering tasks, including injection molding simulation of plastic parts, analysis of aerospace components, impact and crash analysis of automobiles and the electromagnetic analysis of motors, actuators, transformers and sensors.

126 Development of an Actuator for Ambient to Cryo Application (December 2010)

During the qualification campaign of the NIRSpec (near-infrared spectrometer) instrument mechanism, the actuator could not achieve the expected lifetime that had been extended during the development phase. The initial design could not be adapted to the requested number of revolutions during that phase. Consequently the actuator needed to be modified so that the function of the mechanism would not be endangered or, by extension, the overall function of the NIRSpec instrument. The modification included a change of the overall actuator design—internal dimensions, tolerances, materials, lubrication and assembly process—while keeping the interface to the mechanism, mass and function.

127 Medical Modifications (December 2010)

Maxon upgrades tissue removal system for Interlace.

128 Oriental Motor Fair Covers Much More than the Basics (June 2008)

The question is whether or not a customer can save time and money using a step motor. It is followed by another on the differences between brush and brushless motors...

129 Rewind Seminar Jump Starts Motor, Generator Know-How (June 2008)

Calling on engineers and maintenance power plant personnel, industrial users of low- and medium-voltage motors and generators and motor repair shop staff...

130 Power With Precision (February 2009)

Can direct drive technology improve your bottom line? Manufacturers relying upon drive systems in their production process have long sought ways to improve gearbox efficiency. While a gearbox-driven system has been the mainstay for manufacturers, it has also been, among other things, the source of frequent breakdowns, expensive line stoppages and increasingly costly maintenance.

131 With Electric Motors, Size Indeed Matters (February 2009)

In this paper, Edward Hage, founder of specAmotor.com, an online motor calculation and selection tool, focuses on the overheating of electric motors. Presented here is a calculation method with which the temperature and heat development of a direct current (DC) motor and a brushless motor can be predicted accurately.

132 Motor Decisions Do Indeed Matter--Big Time! (June 2008)

CEE/NEMA repair-or-replace campaign saves energy, dollars and downtime.

133 Motor System Reliability Considerations for Cost-Effective Purchasing Decisions (June 2008)

OEMs can minimize the cost of ownership by using highly efficient motors and recognizing when unreliable motors are driving up the operating costs of their applications.

134 DC Motor Protection (June 2013)

The purpose of DC motor protection is to extend a motor's lifespan by protecting it from conditions that can damage the motor's windings--both electrically and mechanically.

135 Motorsports in Motion (February 2008)

KD-Rig Puts Accelerating Developments International in Limelight

136 Electric Motors: When is it Best to Repair, and When is it Best to Replace (June 2008)

The repair-versus-replace decision is quite complicated, depending upon variables such as rewind cost, severity of the failure, replacement motor purchase price and other factors.

137 Packaging Stimulus (April 2009)

Few industries are experiencing change quite as fast as the packaging arena. Lighter-weight containers are being introduced to reduce costs and energy use, packaging is being redesigned to attract consumer attention and manufacturers are using fewer materials in an effort to address environmental concerns.

138 Facing the Challenges of the Current Hybrid Electric Drivetrain (April 2009)

Presented is a high-phase, order-induction motor drive for use in a series hybrid architecture. This solution overcomes numerous compromises in current hybrid powertrain designs. Notably, it allows for a vehicle that is competitive in terms of performance and cost.

139 SMMA Spring Management Conference Navigates Recovery (April 2010)

The SMMA – Motor and Motion Association is ditching the slickers and galoshes for this year’s Spring Management Conference, themed “After the Storm: Navigating in the New World.”

140 Development of an Educational Engineering Workshop on Electric Vehicle and Motor Technology (June 2010)

This paper describes the development of an educational program centered on electric motor and electric vehicle technology at the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Edgerton Center.

141 The Case for Hollow-Shaft Torque Motors (August 2010)

Permanent-magnet, synchronous-torque motors offer significant advantages on high-energy-consuming and high-dynamic applications.

142 Book Review: Design of Permanent-Magnet Brushless Machines (October 2010)

The latest offering by machine design experts J.R. Hendershot and T.J.E. Miller is an 822-page brushless permanent-magnet (PM) machine design book that serves as a worthy follow-up to their 1994 work.

143 Data Loggers Gauge Wastewater Plants Motor Efficiency (February 2010)

In keeping with a national push to bring greater energy efficiency to wastewater treatment plants, a Pennsylvania facility used data loggers to analyze motor utilization, a first step toward cutting energy costs and meeting environmental rules.

144 Reducing Electricity Cost through Use of Premium Efficiency Motors (February 2010)

motors with premium efficiency counterparts presents businesses with a significant opportunity to reduce operating costs. A comparison between premium and standard efficiency motors from 0.25 to 10 horsepower is conducted; comparisons of full-load efficiencies are shown, and estimated payback periods are calculated. Methods for calculating the yearly kilowatt-hour consumption and yearly cost savings of premium efficiency motors for this horsepower range are also given. The cost advantages of premium efficiency motors are summarized, and relevant examples of real world cost savings are shown.

145 Lower-Loss Technology for a Stepping Motor (April 2009)

The demand for stepping motors with high efficiency and low losses has been increasing, although the demand had been previously focused on high torque. Also, the selection of the most suitable grade of lamination for improvement in fastening of the laminated cores has reduced losses significantly at their peak, when compared to conventional stepping motors. Lowering the losses of the motor has enabled continuous operation that was previously impossible. An expansion of the stepping motor’s usage into applications where another motor has been used for continuous operation and other uses—due to the heat generation problem—can now be pursued. In addition, these motors are very effective for energy saving. This paper explains the technology used for lowering the iron losses of the stepping motor.

146 Reducing Core Loss of Segmented Laminations (June 2009)

The recent trend toward using segmented laminations as a means to increase slot fill and facilitate automated fabrication of electric machines comes with a penalty of increased core loss at the segment joints.

147 Direct Drive Technology and its Impact on the Gearmotor Business (December 2009)

An exploration of direct drive motor trends and examples of design uses for direct drives as replacements for gear drives or belt drives.

148 PT Extras (December 2013)

Video from Maxon Motors, Hannover Messe on our LinkedIn page and the NFPA annual conference on our Facebook page.

149 Make the Connection (February 2014)

Recently I had a disturbing conversation with a colleague here at the office. During the conversation, it became clear to me that my co-worker -- a really intelligent guy whom I respect a lot -- had no idea how even the most simple electric motor works.

150 Motor Management - Best Practices (October 2015)

Reducing losses and increasing profits by instituting a motor management plan is what this series of articles is all about. Here in Part I, we discuss how to create a motor inventory and establish repair-or-replace motor guidelines. Subsequent topics in this three-part series will address (Part II) motor failure policies and purchasing specifications, and (Part III) repair specifications and preventive and predictive maintenance, respectively.

151 Industry News (October 2015)

News From the gear Industry

152 Product News (December 2015)

News about latest products

153 Motor Management - Best Practices (December 2015)

Energy costs and downtime can be greatly reduced by instituting a motor management plan. Part II of this three-part series specifically addresses the establishment of a motor failure policy and the development of purchasing specifications. Part I addressed the general aspects of a motor management plan, including the first steps of creating a motor inventory and guidelines for motor repair and replacement. Part III will examine motor repair specifications as well as preventive and predictive maintenance.

154 The Doomsday Clock is Ticking for Gearmotor Manufacturers (October 2015)

The secondhand on the Doomsday dial ominously spins around the face, slowly but ever so surely inching the motor industry towards its inevitable terminus:

155 Motor Madness (October 2015)

This issue we take a long, hard look at motor efficiency, and you should, too. After all, electric motors used in industrial settings are the single largest consumer of electricity in the United States. Upgrading your electric motors is not only good for the environment, but it’s also good for your bottom line. Sure, saving electricity lessens the burden on our country’s energy infrastructure. But it also saves you money in the long run.

156 Industry News (June 2015)

News from Around the Industry

157 The Race for Efficiency (August 2015)

Over the past few decades, energy efficiency in motors has become an ever-increasing concern for OEMs and manufacturers alike. With multiple energy bills mandating higher efficiency across ever-broader spectrums of motors, including the most recent Small Motor Rule by the Department of Energy, efficiency has become an essential consideration when choosing a new motor.

158 The Importance of Thermal Protection for Torque Motors (August 2015)

When talking about high-end machining or manufacturing applications that include direct-drive technology, one of the key advantages of utilizing this particular transmission method is its endurance. Because of the very nature of direct-drive motors they are able to operate at peak performance levels indefinitely — without any kind of wear or aging — as long as the motor isn’t pushed past its capacity. Unfortunately, because this isn’t a perfect world, unexpected things can happen which can cause the motor to overheat. Whether the heat source is due to a parameter being input incorrectly, or an unexpected external force causing more resistance than expected — it is important to have certain forms of thermal protection in place. Since torque motors are built in such a way that they cannot be repaired and yet maintain their efficiency, it is vital to prevent any overheating — thus precluding the need to purchase a new one.

159 Reducing Food Processing Plant Energy Costs (February 2016)

U.S. manufacturers, such as food processors, face an unprecedented competitive environment and must look for ways to be profitable without negatively affecting the quality of finished products.

160 Motor Management Best Practices Part 3 (February 2016)

This three-part series on motor management best practices focuses on the importance of instituting a motor management plan as a necessity in effectively administering the electric motors in a facility. The goal of a motor management plan is to take advantage of opportunities for energy savings and increased productivity using energy efficient, reliable motors such as NEMA Premium efficiency motors, herein referred to as “premium efficiency” motors.

161 Mining for Solutions (September 2016)

Increasing pressure on many fronts is compelling mine operators to thoroughly examine every phase of their operations. Fluctuating demand that whipsaws mineral prices, government-imposed environmental regulations and rising operating costs related to maintenance downtime all pose serious challenges for the mining sector. Add pressure from customers and stakeholders for more sustainable operations as well as union demands for higher wages, and you have a scenario that requires mine operators to exercise every possible option to achieve more efficient operations.

162 Cutting Downtime in Lumber Application (September 2016)

Ernest Head (Arnie), CBS and technical sales representative at Motion Canada helped save a lumber industry customer time and money by adapting a bearing solution for another client. Here’s how:

163 Taking Aim at Conveyor Systems (October 2016)

It's no secret that conveyor systems are the primary market for gearmotors, and so it shouldn't be much of a surprise that gearmotor manufacturers are looking for ways to cater to that market's needs. From Brother's new VFDs to Siemens' Simotics S-1FG1, a lot of the new solutions in the industry have their own unique quirks, but all fall into a few common veins.

164 Linear Motors (October 2016)

When the need arises for linear motion or positioning, there are many choices. One can use an Acme screw, ball screw, rack & pinion, or belts. The cost of a linear motor solution is generally greater than a mechanical linear product, but when one needs highly accurate, repeatable, high-speed motion, then the answer may be a linear motor.

165 Product News (September 2016)

News about recent products in the Industry

166 Product News (August 2016)

News about industry products.

167 Replacing Motors, Counting Savings (Spring 2007)

Th e total U.S. electric motor base exceeds 100 million motors and consumes more than 50% of all electricity generated in the country. Small motors—fractional horsepower to 20-hp—comprise 99% of the motor population but consume only 25% of all generated electricity (Refs. 1,3,10,14).

168 Industry News (Spring 2007)

News from around the Industry

169 Closer to the Sun (June 2016)

Without the sun, there would be no Earth and no life. However, our knowledge about our home star is still very limited. This is about to change. In 2018, the European Space Agency (ESA) will send its Solar Orbiter into space, equipped with a thick heat shield.

170 Stepper Motor Actuators (June 2015)

How would you compare the efficiency and capabilities of hybrid stepper motor actuators vs. can stack stepper motor actuators?

171 Servo Motor Performance at Stepper Motor Prices (April 2015)

Enhancing production with — and for — less is the standing order in today’s manufacturing world. Speeding up production while at the same time looking for ways, to cut, for example, energy costs, is a tricky equation with no single answer; where and how management goes about achieving that can take several paths.

172 Industry News (August 2014)

The complete Industry News section from the August 2014 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

173 Product News (September 2014)

The complete Product News section from the September 2014 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

174 Full Throttle (September 2014)

The Formula Renault 3.5 is seen as a crucial stepping stone on the way into the premier class, the Formula 1. Ambitious racers do not just bring their talents - they also have highly efficient motors on board to control the throttle of their 530-hp V8 engines.

175 High-Tech Motors Evolving from PM Muck (September 2014)

University lab's motor eliminates pricey rare-earth magnets.

176 The Reluctance Motor Springs Forth (August 2014)

There are three major types of reluctance motors: all three reluctance motors are non-permanent magnet, brushless motors. They are synchronous motors with a non-linear relationship between torque and current. The variable-reluctance step and switched-reluctance motors utilize the principle of magnetic attraction by inducing magnet poles within the soft-iron rotor, and by energizing a set of coils wound around stator teeth resident in the laminated stator. These two reluctance motors must be sequentially excited to achieve continuous, steady-state rotation. The design of all reluctance motors requires finite element analysis (FEA) software.

177 Motor Appreciation (April 2014)

When I woke up this morning, my house was a comfortable 68°F, despite the fact that overnight temperatures in the Chicago area were close to freezing. I don’t often think about the blower motor that helps circulate the warm air from my furnace throughout my house, but today I was grateful for it...

178 Brushless PM-Motors Speed Ahead (June 2014)

There are more brushless PM motors being made every day. These brushless PM motors are smaller in size -- i.e., less than 50 watts in power output found in hard-disk drives, CD and DVD players and many portable medical devices. Servo systems with brushless PM motors ranging from 50 watts to 50 kilowatts are now challenging the larger electric motor applications. A few manufacturers have pushed brushless PM motors above 200 kW.

179 The Ever-Efficient Motor (April 2014)

This product focus highlights the latest technology in electric motors.

180 The Step Motor (April 2014)

Step motors come in many sizes and shapes. But they all share one item in common - each step motor type moves in discrete-degree steps. They react to a series of voltage pulses supplied by their basic controller, known as an "indexer." The step motor was the first to accept digital pulses, then move or rotate a prescribed amount without any feedback device. All step motors are position devices without the need to use any feedback devices. They operate primarily in an open-loop control scheme.

181 Low-Efficiency Motors and Gears Still Prevalent (October 2014)

Electric motor-driven systems are the single largest enduser of electricity, accounting for over 40% of global consumption according to the International Energy Agency.

182 Made in the USA, Sourced in China (October 2014)

If you read only one article this issue, it should be Norm Parker’s article on the Chinese bearing manufacturing industry. Parker is an engineer with General Motors, a true industry insider who has become a regular contributor to Power Transmission Engineering.

183 Gear Fault Diagnosis by Motor Current Analysis: Application to Industrial Cases (February 2015)

The use of motor current signature analysis (MCSA) for motor fault detection — such as a broken rotor bar — is now well established. However, detection of mechanical faults related to the driven system remains a more challenging task. Recently there has been a growing interest for detection of gear faults by MCSA. Advantages and drawbacks of these MCSA-type techniques are presented and discussed on a few industrial cases.

184 Diagnosing the Health of Medical Motors (March 2015)

John Morehead, national sales manager of Crouzet Motors (Vista, CA), was bunkered down in his office in Palatine, IL surrounded at all points by ankle-deep snow from an unfortunately terrible Chicago’s winter night.

185 Girls Love Science (April 2015)

Hi. My name is Renee. I’m 12. You might remember me from about a year ago, when my dad wrote about me and the home-made motor project we did together (“Make the Connection,” February 2014).

186 Whats In a Meme (April 2015)

Rosetta Mission mixes with Maxon, Kim K for one unforgettable photo

187 Motors and Motion Meet in St. Louis (December 2014)

The motors might be small, but the big-brain technology driving these electrical wonders was on full display at the 2014 Small Motor & Motion Association Fall Technical Conference, convened November 4-6 in St. Louis, MO. SMMA, the manufacturing trade association (120 members strong) that tends to the best interests of the electric motor and motion control industries — including manufacturers, suppliers, users, consultants and universities — played gracious host to a wide array of presenters from an equally diverse range of sources — from academia to the federal government. Like gears, motors are most everywhere, as evidenced by SMMA’s membership (consumer-, public interest-, national defense- and commercial-oriented) demographic which includes: appliance; transportation; medical equipment; office automation and computers; aerospace; and industrial automation. The association’s mission: To “serve as the principal voice of the electric motors and drives industry” and to provide a forum to “develop, collect and disseminate technical and management knowledge.”

188 Energy Efficiency, Configurable Solutions Highlight Pack Expo (December 2014)

A wide variety of companies displayed mechanical power transmission and motion control technologies at Pack Expo, held in November in Chicago. The event, which is the largest packaging and processing trade show in North America, attracted more than 48,000 attendees, according to show owner and producer PMMI. The four-day event included 2,352 exhibiting companies, an increase of more than 19 percent from the previous show in 2012.

189 Product News (December 2014)

News from the industry about new products.

190 The Small Motor Rule, How Will This Affect You (December 2014)

According to the Department of Energy (DOE), more than half of all electrical energy consumed in the U.S. is used by electric motors. To address this, several years ago, the DOE conducted a technical study as to what could be done to raise the efficiency levels of “small” motors. After years of study and litigation, the Small Motor Rule (SMR) was passed that covers two-digit NEMA frame single- and three-phase ¼ through 3 horsepower motors in open enclosures.

191 Industry News (December 2014)

News from around the industry.

192 How Does An Electric Motor Work (October 2016)

If you’re an electrical engineer you know how an electric motor works; if you aren’t, it can be extremely confusing. Therefore, here’s the simplified explanation (or the “how an electric motor works for dummies” version) of how a four-pole, three-phase AC induction motor works in a car.

News Items About motor drives

1 Baldor Adds High-Powered, Ethernet-Compatible Motor Drives to Lineup (November 15, 2007)
Baldor recently added three higher power AC motor drives to its product line. The Motiflex e100 drives are Ethernet-compatible with Power...

2 Schaffner Motor Drives Improve Performance (January 30, 2017)
Schaffner introduces the FN510 dv/dt filter which eliminates premature motor damage caused by high dv/dt, over-voltages on motor cables, ...