motor control

Articles About motor control


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1 Honing a Competitive Advantage (December 2009)

Sunnen grows product portfolio with motion control solution from Siemens.

2 Step vs. Servo - Selecting the Best (October 2018)

Over the many years, there have been many technical papers and articles about which motor is the best. The short and sweet answer is - let's talk about the application. More recently a number of papers and articles have appeared that compared each motor's advantages and disadvantages in generic or specific terms. Many times, the methods used to drive and control these motors are not completely described due to the many control schemes available for use. A few articles focus on just the open loop step motor and the closed loop servo motor advantages and disadvantages in a laundry list format. This article is attempting to "drill down" into the reasons why and to describe how it is done.

3 Saving Time with Auto-Tuning Drives (March 2017)

If there are two things that are in tight supply in the industry, it's time and talent. Manufacturers are always pressured to do more faster, and the industry is producing fewer experts to help them do it, so the industry's had to get crafty and find what time-cutting procedures they can.

4 Pushing the Envelope(s) (September 2015)

With advances in modern technology reducing demand for envelopes, manufacturers are finding it increasingly hard to justify investment.

5 Servo Motor Performance at Stepper Motor Prices (April 2015)

Enhancing production with — and for — less is the standing order in today’s manufacturing world. Speeding up production while at the same time looking for ways, to cut, for example, energy costs, is a tricky equation with no single answer; where and how management goes about achieving that can take several paths.

6 Now That Is Smart Manufacturing! (February 2017)

A machine called Sub1 Reloaded solved a Rubik's Cube in 637 thousandths of a second in Munich.

7 Motors and Mechatronics - Moving to a Higher Plane (September 2017)

This is an article about motors - preventive motor maintenance, actually. And something else - mechatronics. In today's high-tech manufacturing and industrial use environments, it is near impossible to talk about equally complex motor maintenance and repair-or-replace protocols without it.

8 Product News (October 2018)

The complete Product News section from the October 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

9 Product News (June 2017)

The complete Product News section from the June 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

10 Industry News (March 2017)

The complete Industry News section from the March 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

11 Gearmotors Pulling, Pushing and Controlling Their Weight (October 2018)

Industrial mainstay adapts to remain relevant in a 4.0 world

12 Six Keys to Sustainable Manufacturing (February 2009)

The federal government estimates that manufacturing uses about one third of the energy consumed in the U.S., so manufacturing companies can play an important role in building a sustainable future.

13 Industry News (August 2012)

The complete Industry News section from the August 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

14 Product News (August 2016)

News about industry products.

15 Baldor Motor Basics: Electric Motors and Power Systems and Electric Motors and Voltage (September 2017)

Part 1: There seems to be a lot of confusion about the voltage standards for motors and why they are structured the way they are. Part 2: The effect of low voltage on electric motors is pretty widely known and understood, but the effect of high voltage on motors is frequently misunderstood.

16 Baldor Motor Basics: Part 12 (April 2018)

The final installment in our Baldor Motor Basics series covers 50 Hz requirements, as well as motors wet or damp environments.

17 Familiar Goals, New Solutions (October 2017)

Gearmotor manufacturers find new ways to push the envelope. (With Sidebar on new alternative to planetary gearboxes)

18 Industry News (March 2018)

The complete Industry News section from the March 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

19 Baldor Motor Basics Part 11 (March 2018)

Explosion-Proof Motors in Division 2 Areas and DC Drive Fundamentals

20 Product News (September 2017)

The complete Product News section from the September 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

21 The Reliability of Sewer Robots (September 2017)

Faulhaber Provides Motor Technology for Pipe Renovation Projects

22 Baldor Motor Basics: Premium Efficiency Motors (October 2017)

Conservation through lighting alterations using different bulbs, ballasts and light sources is well understood and easy to achieve. The use of improved efficiency three phase induction motors has not been as accepted. There are a number of reasons why conservation efforts with motors have not been as popular.

23 Baldor Motor Basics - Part 9 (December 2017)

Amps, Watts, Power Factor and Efficiency; Approximate Load Data from Amperage Readings; Power Factor Correction on Single-Induction Motors.

24 How to Select Motors for Hazardous Locations - Baldor Motor Basics Part 10 (February 2018)

Failure to specify the proper motor for use in a hazardous location can have serious consequences - lost production, extensive property damage, and even loss of human life. Selection of the proper motor requires an understanding of Underwriters Laboratories' (UL) and National Electrical Code (NEC) class, group and division designations and the T code letters.

25 Mechanical Motion in Tight Spaces (March 2018)

Framo Morat and Dunkermotoren Produce Drive Systems for Automatic Guided Vehicles.

26 Emerging Motor Technologies (February 2018)

Copper's continuing role in energy-efficient motor development.

27 Product News (April 2018)

New servo drives, gear pumps, stepper motors and more.

28 Design of Plastic Microgear Teeth for Mass Production with High Manufacturing Tolerances for a Medical Device (March 2018)

Microgears for some types of medical technology need to be inexpensively mass produced. But at the same time, they need to be both precise and reliable, even though their design lifetime is relatively short. Here's how microgears were developed for blood glucose measuring devices, insulin pumps for diabetics and other very small devices.

29 Efficiency of Design (February 2018)

Energy efficiency is for more than just motors. Here are some mechatronics companies making sure you get more bang for your buck when it comes to your power bill.

30 Baldor Motor Basics: Factors that Determine Industrial Electric Bills (August 2017)

A good deal of confusion exists regarding the factors that determine an industrial electric bill. The following information is presented to help sort out the various items on which billing is based, and to offer suggestions on measures to help control and reduce electric utility bills.

31 Baldor Basics: Understanding Torque (April 2017)

In the process of applying industrial drive products, we occasionally are misled into believing that we are applying horsepower. The real driving force is not horsepower - it is torque. This paper is developed to impart a deeper understanding of torque, its relationship to horsepower, and the types of loads we most frequently encounter.

32 Taking Aim at Conveyor Systems (October 2016)

It's no secret that conveyor systems are the primary market for gearmotors, and so it shouldn't be much of a surprise that gearmotor manufacturers are looking for ways to cater to that market's needs. From Brother's new VFDs to Siemens' Simotics S-1FG1, a lot of the new solutions in the industry have their own unique quirks, but all fall into a few common veins.

33 Linear Motors (October 2016)

When the need arises for linear motion or positioning, there are many choices. One can use an Acme screw, ball screw, rack & pinion, or belts. The cost of a linear motor solution is generally greater than a mechanical linear product, but when one needs highly accurate, repeatable, high-speed motion, then the answer may be a linear motor.

34 How Does An Electric Motor Work (October 2016)

If you’re an electrical engineer you know how an electric motor works; if you aren’t, it can be extremely confusing. Therefore, here’s the simplified explanation (or the “how an electric motor works for dummies” version) of how a four-pole, three-phase AC induction motor works in a car.

35 Making Shakespeare Shine (October 2016)

New things are invented for theater lighting all the time and they’re usually big, expensive technology-driven devices. It’s the simple things that make you wonder, “Why didn’t I think of that?” according to Ken Billington, lighting designer. The RSC Lightlock is a great example of this.

36 Cutting Downtime in Lumber Application (September 2016)

Ernest Head (Arnie), CBS and technical sales representative at Motion Canada helped save a lumber industry customer time and money by adapting a bearing solution for another client. Here’s how:

37 Mining for Solutions (September 2016)

Increasing pressure on many fronts is compelling mine operators to thoroughly examine every phase of their operations. Fluctuating demand that whipsaws mineral prices, government-imposed environmental regulations and rising operating costs related to maintenance downtime all pose serious challenges for the mining sector. Add pressure from customers and stakeholders for more sustainable operations as well as union demands for higher wages, and you have a scenario that requires mine operators to exercise every possible option to achieve more efficient operations.

38 Can You Develop Your Own Custom Motor-and-Motion System (June 2016)

In this century’s complex, ever- changing world of manufacturing, such capabilities as hardware and software expertise, effective location and distribution, business savvy and yes, even luck, are some of the cardinal requirements for running a successful business.

39 Closer to the Sun (June 2016)

Without the sun, there would be no Earth and no life. However, our knowledge about our home star is still very limited. This is about to change. In 2018, the European Space Agency (ESA) will send its Solar Orbiter into space, equipped with a thick heat shield.

40 Product News (September 2016)

News about recent products in the Industry

41 Baldor Basics: Motors (December 2016)

Beginning with this initial installment , and with the gracious permission of ABB/Baldor Electric, we are pleased to announce the beginning of a new series -- Baldor Basics: Motors. This is a collection of basicsdriven, motor-intensive articles authored by former Baldor engineer Edward Cowern, PE, a respected name by many in the electric motor industry. During his tenure at Baldor, Cowern - now enjoying his retirement - was tasked with producing a number of motor- and basics-related tutorials, primarily in response to a steady flow of customer questions regarding motors. Today's customers continue to ask questions and seek answers to address their various motor-related issues. As with Cowern's original introduction to the series, we hope you find these articles useful and would appreciate any comments or thoughts you might have for future improvements, corrections or topics.

42 Baldor Basics: Motors (February 2017)

This issue we cover frame sizes and two-speed motors in our continuing series of articles, courtesy of Baldor Electric, dedicated to motor basics.

43 Miniature Motion Solutions (June 2017)

Motor technology thrives in aerospace/defense applications.

44 Baldor Basics: Applications (June 2017)

Fans, blowers and other funny loads are addressend, along with RMS Horsepower loading.

45 How to Select a DC Motor: Coreless and Iron Core Brushed DC Motors (June 2017)

DC motors possess linear relationships that allow for very predictable operation. For instance, if enough voltage is applied across the terminals of a DC motor, the output shaft will spin at a rate proportional to that applied voltage. You can take the ratio of the applied voltage over the rated voltage and multiply that number by the no load speed and get the running speed.

46 Product News (June 2018)

Elastic housing deformation by MESYS, plus new motors, actuators, gear drives and more.

47 Copper in Motor Repair Facilities (March 2017)

Three electric motor repair facilities share best practices for utilizing copper in motor repair, and recommending new motors to replace older, less-efficient motors

48 Lightweight, Highly Efficient Drive System (February 2017)

This paper presents a joint project conducted by Ashwoods Electric Motors and Oerlikon Fairfield that uses planetary drives with an integrated electric motor. Current solutions used in production of off-highway vehicles rely upon large, heavy and inefficient brushed DC or induction motors, coupled to a planetary gearbox. This presents a number of challenges to the vehicle designers such as: limited vehicle range, limited space around the motor/drivetrain, and motor durability. The proposed integrated system utilizes an Oerlikon Fairfield Torque Hub, widely used in off-highway vehicles, and the Ashwoods first-to-market, interior permanent magnet motor. How these products are integrated, i.e. incorporating a brake solution, represents a market-changing product. Using interior permanent magnet (IPM) technology in the motor design means the motor can be up to 70% lighter, 70% smaller and 20% more efficient than traditional motors used in off-highway traction applications.

49 Why Direct Drive (March 2017)

In today's highly competitive world, the better someone understands the advantages and benefits of direct drive technology, then the more they will have an advantage in machine building, giving them an edge over their competition.

50 Baldor Basics: Motors (March 2017)

This issue our Baldor Basics series continues with the topics of motor temperature ratings and metric motors.

51 Six Key Elements of Gearmotor Optimization (August 2017)

How to Ensure Reliable Performance, Increased Efficiency and Lowest Total Cost of Ownership.

52 Keeping the Lights on - Machine Monitoring Basics (June 2018)

As manufacturers continually search for ways to cut costs and increase ROI, machine monitoring and predictive maintenance (PdM) solutions are an increasingly cost-effective way for plants and factories to help reduce process downtime.

53 Belts Vs. Couplings (August 2015)

rotary-type blowers? Examples: for motor KW; RPM; temperature; pressure production; lifetime; etc. In other words, how do I choose between belts or couplings?

54 How to Design A Better Servo Control System (Fall 2007)

Servo control system engineers typically work designing new systems or redesigning existing systems for conveyors, pick and place machines, gantries, machine tools or other equipment.

55 Slicing Downtime (March 2016)

An independent cheese packager in central Wisconsin packages millions of pounds of cheese every year. Whether shredded, sliced, crumbled or waxed, each package is designed specifically for a customer’s unique needs. As a “toll processor,” production line speed is critical to productivity as well as profitability.

56 Product News (April 2016)

Latest news about upcoming products.

57 Braking the Cycle (August 2015)

Tucked away in the southwest quadrant of the state of Georgia, amid stately pine stands, pecan farms and cotton fields, sits Oak Crest Lumber.

58 Bosch Rexroth Offers Hydraulic Solution for Blast Furnace (September 2014)

While the basic design of iron and coke blast furnaces is centuries old, today's steel makers are looking for innovative ways to produce molten iron with increased production and efficiency

59 Designing Drive Systems for Low-Web-Speed Applications (December 2012)

This paper will look at the solutions that current drive and motor technology can offer in not only improving tension control but also solving several other issues that are inherent to systems with high ratio gearing.

60 Wall to Wall Technology (August 2014)

With the addition of Industrial Automation North America (IANA) as well as Motion, Drive & Automation North America(MDA NA), IMTS 2014 has greatly expanded its range of manufacturing technology services. These co-located shows complement the metalworking solutions found at IMTS by bringing in key suppliers from around the world.

61 No Time to Kill for Barge Operation (August 2014)

The scene is serene and picturesque. Sunshine reflects off the light chop of the Ohio River, as a barge winds its way into view. While those driving along Louisville’s River Road may be inclined to reach for a camera to capture this idyllic scene, the mood at Nugent Sand Company is anything but tranquil.

62 Modular Control Systems for Wind Energy (August 2016)

For a 5-megawatt wind turbine prototype, aerodyn employs the latest control and software technologies, including a comprehensive PC-based control solution and the new modular TwinCAT Wind Framework. The TwinCAT Wind Framework features the latest software engineering and Big Data applications to extend current Industry 4.0 concepts to the wind energy industry. The modular software supports, for example, the direct provision of sensor data to the operator’s database, and in general enables the easy adaption of the wind turbine operation management to future requirements.

63 Eight Reasons to Use Air Bearings Over Mechanical Bearings (December 2016)

Mechanical guiding systems, such as crossedroller bearings, work well for most motion control applications; however, when precision, angular repeatability, and geometric performance (runout, straightness) are critical or where submicron bearing rumble is problematic, air bearings are recommended. An air-bearing stage is a rotary or linear positioner that floats on a cushion of air, using one of several preload mechanisms, nearly eliminating mechanical contact and thus wear, friction, and hysteresis effects. Here are eight reasons why an air-bearing stage might be the right choice for your application:

64 Smarter Machines Need Smarter Components (March 2018)

The future of motion control is connectivity. Read this issue to learn why.

65 12 Current Trends in Motion Control (March 2018)

Smart Factory solutions hint at machine design potential in 2018.

66 The Gizmo Society (June 2018)

It is hard these days to find any device that is not IoT-compatible or WiFi-connected. I recently had a new well pump installed that requires an iPhone for setup, which makes it hard for me to check or change the setup since I do not own an iPhone. In Olden Times, you had potentiometers or RS-232 connections - and that was fine.

67 Monitoring the Health of Plant Machinery (September 2018)

Health monitoring or condition monitoring has been used for many years on machines and in plants where the cost of an outage is high. It allows failures to be anticipated and maintenance or repairs to be scheduled for the least loss of production, as well as avoiding unnecessary periodic maintenance.

68 Force Control Assists in Helicopter Transmission Overhaul (December 2017)

Oil shear brake technology is the key to quick and reliable test stand development.

69 MediaMation Utilizes Digitization and Pneumatics to Alter Theater Experience (August 2017)

"For your safety, please keep your hands, arms and legs inside the vehicle at all times."

70 Product News (April 2017)

Clutches and Brakes take center stage in the April 2017 edition of Product News.

71 Industry News (June 2017)

The complete Industry News section from the June 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

72 Product News (August 2017)

The latest tools and techologies in power transmission, motion control and related components.

73 Guidelines for Designing Better Motion Control Systems (February 2012)

Motion control systems engineers work chiefly in two well-defined areas: 1) new designs and 2) redesigns or retrofits. This article examines the best approach for each option.

74 Motion Control - Product Spotlight (August 2011)

This special product news section takes a look at the latest in motion control products.

75 Medical Motion Control (August 2013)

Controls from Quicksilver help in the design and development of medical rehabilitation equipment originally designed for returning astronauts.

76 Product News (June 2013)

The complete Product News section from the June 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

77 Product News (April 2008)

The complete product news section from the April 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

78 Music in Motion (December 2008)

Woodworking process gets much needed upgrade for guitar manufacturer.

79 Integrated Hybrid Servo Motors vs. Standard Integrated Servo Motors (December 2018)

Different motor types favor different application areas. No single style has advantages in all application spaces. Direct drive applications favor hybrid servos while high-speed, geared down applications tend to favor the conventional servo motors.

80 Motor Insight: Anatomy of a Drone (September 2018)

The skies are full of them in 2018 - drones flying around amusement parks, job sites and even your own backyard. There are drone racing leagues on ESPN, drones capturing wide angle shots over film locations and government drones keeping a bird's eye view on the Mexican/America border.

81 Simulation Software Provides a Different Set of Tools for Motor Efficiency (June 2018)

While some organizations focus on real-world analytics and data collection for predictive maintenance, simulation tools and virtual prototyping can be another solution for motor efficiency.

82 Industry News (Spring 2007)

News from around the Industry

83 The Clean Cut (August 2018)

JBT Corporation benefits from Kollmorgen Hygienic motor design in food and beverage application.

84 Control System Upgrades Product Testing and Validation Machinery (December 2008)

Opto 22 Embeds Snap Motion Control subsystem in production equipment to control, monitor and gather operational data.

85 Electronic Control for Hydraulic Applications - A Case Study (June 2009)

This case study presents how electronics and software can be applied to a mobile hydraulic application, as well as how electro-hydraulics have evolved over time.

86 Tuning a PID Controller (April 2011)

This paper introduces the basic fundamentals of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control theory and the characteristics of each of the PID control loops.

87 Integrated Motion Control in Packaging Machines Delivers Value (June 2011)

Maximizing packaging machine productivity and performance is imperative to success and is driving OEMs to adopt and invest in the latest technologies that can meet their customers’ challenges. At the forefront of these performance-driven technologies is an integrated control system—or programmable automation controller (PAC)—and latest-generation motion solutions.

88 (Material) Moving into the Future (June 2011)

a custom hydraulic brake system from Mico Inc. aid in the development of specialized material handling equipment.

89 Blocks (Around the Clock) (August 2011)

Reading Rock manufactures concrete blocks - the kind that were probably used to build the schools that you attended. With employees working three shifts six to seven days a week, they make plenty of them.

90 The Limbs of Lumenhaus (October 2010)

Motion systems bring award-winning and energy-optimizing “Smart House” to life.

91 Energy Strategy Makes a Difference (June 2010)

How to optimize performance and sustainable production through strategic planning, informed analysis and automation and control technology.

92 Product News (August 2009)

The complete Product News section from the August 2009 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

93 Autosave Increases Productivity, Reduces Downtime for Nestle Purina (August 2009)

As automation devices have grown more complex and have incorporated more plant data in their operation, there is an increased need for programming changes to continue smooth operation or improve performance. In environments requiring frequent changes, it is not uncommon for code to be lost or changes overwritten, resulting in increased downtime and decreased productivity

94 Soft Drink Solutions (December 2009)

Servo system from Bosch-Rexroth helps create more efficient beverage palletizer.

95 A Mechanical Healthcare Plan (June 2018)

Motor Operation Gets Big Boost from Smart Technology (Here's How to Take Advantage)

96 Product News (December 2015)

News about latest products

97 Motors Technology Update (April 2011)

The latest in motors technology from leading manufacturers.

98 Exploring All Motor Options (April 2011)

Q&A with Harald Poesch, product marketing manager for servomotors at Siemens Drive Technologies.

99 Development of the Upgraded DC Brush Gearmotor for Spacebus Platforms (April 2011)

The obsolescence of materials and processes in the manufacture of traditional DC brush gearmotors has necessitated the development of an upgraded DC brush gearmotor.

100 Microprocessor-Controlled Prosthetic Leg (June 2011)

A new solution has been developed around the use of microprocessor-controlled prostheses. Just like natural limbs, these can react automatically, adapting to the current situation.

101 The Green Spin: Baldor Redefines Cooling Tower Performance (February 2011)

The Baldor Reliance RPM AC Cooling Tower Direct Drive Motor is designed exclusively for the cooling tower industry. This motor combines the technologies of the power-dense, laminated frame RPM AC motor with high performance, permanent magnet salient pole rotor designs.

102 Drive-Based Integrated Safety (February 2011)

While safety functions have been integrated into drives packages for some years now, the current trends are very exciting, from many angles. Today, a full complement of safety functions can be implemented at the front-end of a system design on all types of production machines, including printing, packaging, converting, materials handling and other equipment used throughout American industry.

103 Medical Modifications (December 2010)

Maxon upgrades tissue removal system for Interlace.

104 Development of an Actuator for Ambient to Cryo Application (December 2010)

During the qualification campaign of the NIRSpec (near-infrared spectrometer) instrument mechanism, the actuator could not achieve the expected lifetime that had been extended during the development phase. The initial design could not be adapted to the requested number of revolutions during that phase. Consequently the actuator needed to be modified so that the function of the mechanism would not be endangered or, by extension, the overall function of the NIRSpec instrument. The modification included a change of the overall actuator design—internal dimensions, tolerances, materials, lubrication and assembly process—while keeping the interface to the mechanism, mass and function.

105 Opportunities Amidst Crises (February 2011)

Energy-challenged industries--and countries--can benefit from improved motor design and materials.

106 Airport Baggage Handling: Queue Conveyor Design from a Gearmotor Perspective (February 2011)

The primary driver of an airport baggage handling queue conveyor must be able to operate under increasingly demanding operating conditions, including frequent starting and stopping. The selection of the primary driver of the queue conveyor is dependent on multiple criteria, including dimensional requirements and durability characteristics.

107 Soft Starters vs. Variable Speed - Or Both (June 2011)

Given that many different hydraulic systems recommend the use of either frequency converters or cyclic control (soft starter technologies), the question must be asked - Which one of these solutions is the most cost-effective in reducing energy consumption and providing the most satisfactory payback time?

108 Motoring Ahead (August 2011)

Synchronous motors controlled by variable speed drives are bringing higher efficiencies to industrial applications.

109 Achieving High Electric Motor Efficiency (April 2012)

The use of motor structures which can concentrate magnetic flux allows ferrite PM motors to achieve performance and power densities that approach those of PM motors using rare earth magnets, but without the cost penalties and supply source concerns of rare earth magnets.

110 Predictive Motor Maintenance (PdM): Use it or Lose it (Money) (June 2012)

Regardless of where you do business, when discussing, analyzing or worrying about “The Economy” these days, you’re not thinking Main Street - you’re thinking global. With that stipulation, it is also accepted wisdom that quality products and sharp pencils are not enough to be and remain competitive. Accordingly, everyone is looking for an edge, an advantage, in order to beat back - or at least keep up with - the competition.

111 Nervy Enterprise and Edgy Engineering: A Cant-Miss Mix (June 2012)

Fairchild International, a U.S.-based manufacturer of underground mining equipment, has produced battery-powered DC scoops since the early 1980s. With 17 different models available, Fairchild offers a size to fit any coal mining operation, making it the leader in the industry.

112 The Painful Birth of the DC Electric Motor (June 2012)

Defined in rudimentary terms, an electric motor is a device that uses electricity to create mechanical force. But in 1834, when our story takes place, most people would have trouble understanding the ramifications. That was the year that one of the earliest DC electric motors was invented—by a blacksmith.

113 University Improves Sustainability of HVAC Motors in Platinum LEED Building (April 2012)

A new preventive maintenance program at a leading New England Ivy League university demonstrates how the push for more sustainable "green" building management has led to a growing awareness of a chronic, widespread problem with HVAC motors—electrical bearing damage and failure.

114 Optimizing Drive Systems for Energy Savings (February 2012)

In looking for potential opportunities to reduce energy consumption via the drive system, a number of areas should be considered.

115 Step Motor Lower-Loss Technology - an Update (October 2011)

The demand for stepping motors with high efficiency and low losses has been increasing right along with the existing focus on high torque. The selection of the most suitable grade and improvement in the fastening of the laminated cores has reduced losses significantly at their peak when compared to conventional stepping motors.

116 Industry News (October 2011)

The complete Industry News section from the October 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

117 New Motor Technology (April 2013)

Novatorque energy efficient motors, Portescap smaller-size brushless DC motors, Pittman customized motors, Kollmorgen stainless steel motors, Crouzet expanded motor series, and a report from IHS on rare earth mineral supply.

118 A Present State and Future Vision of Motor Drive Technology (December 2010)

One of the driving forces behind the industrial revolution was the invention—more than a century ago—of the electric motor. Its widespread use for all kinds of mechanical motion has made life simpler and has ultimately aided the advancement of humankind. And the advent of the inverter that facilitated speed and torque control of AC motors has propelled the use of electric motors to new realms that were inconceivable just a mere 30 years ago. Advances in power semiconductors—along with digital controls—have enabled realization of motor drives that are robust and can control position and speed to a high degree of precision. The use of AC motor drives has also resulted in energy savings and improved system efficiency. This paper reviews the development and application of inverter technology to AC motor drives and presents a vision for motor drive technology.

119 Book Review: Design of Permanent-Magnet Brushless Machines (October 2010)

The latest offering by machine design experts J.R. Hendershot and T.J.E. Miller is an 822-page brushless permanent-magnet (PM) machine design book that serves as a worthy follow-up to their 1994 work.

120 Oriental Motor Fair Covers Much More than the Basics (June 2008)

The question is whether or not a customer can save time and money using a step motor. It is followed by another on the differences between brush and brushless motors...

121 Rewind Seminar Jump Starts Motor, Generator Know-How (June 2008)

Calling on engineers and maintenance power plant personnel, industrial users of low- and medium-voltage motors and generators and motor repair shop staff...

122 Power With Precision (February 2009)

Can direct drive technology improve your bottom line? Manufacturers relying upon drive systems in their production process have long sought ways to improve gearbox efficiency. While a gearbox-driven system has been the mainstay for manufacturers, it has also been, among other things, the source of frequent breakdowns, expensive line stoppages and increasingly costly maintenance.

123 With Electric Motors, Size Indeed Matters (February 2009)

In this paper, Edward Hage, founder of specAmotor.com, an online motor calculation and selection tool, focuses on the overheating of electric motors. Presented here is a calculation method with which the temperature and heat development of a direct current (DC) motor and a brushless motor can be predicted accurately.

124 Motor Decisions Do Indeed Matter--Big Time! (June 2008)

CEE/NEMA repair-or-replace campaign saves energy, dollars and downtime.

125 Motor System Reliability Considerations for Cost-Effective Purchasing Decisions (June 2008)

OEMs can minimize the cost of ownership by using highly efficient motors and recognizing when unreliable motors are driving up the operating costs of their applications.

126 DC Motor Protection (June 2013)

The purpose of DC motor protection is to extend a motor's lifespan by protecting it from conditions that can damage the motor's windings--both electrically and mechanically.

127 Motorsports in Motion (February 2008)

KD-Rig Puts Accelerating Developments International in Limelight

128 Electric Motors: When is it Best to Repair, and When is it Best to Replace (June 2008)

The repair-versus-replace decision is quite complicated, depending upon variables such as rewind cost, severity of the failure, replacement motor purchase price and other factors.

129 Packaging Stimulus (April 2009)

Few industries are experiencing change quite as fast as the packaging arena. Lighter-weight containers are being introduced to reduce costs and energy use, packaging is being redesigned to attract consumer attention and manufacturers are using fewer materials in an effort to address environmental concerns.

130 Facing the Challenges of the Current Hybrid Electric Drivetrain (April 2009)

Presented is a high-phase, order-induction motor drive for use in a series hybrid architecture. This solution overcomes numerous compromises in current hybrid powertrain designs. Notably, it allows for a vehicle that is competitive in terms of performance and cost.

131 Data Loggers Gauge Wastewater Plants Motor Efficiency (February 2010)

In keeping with a national push to bring greater energy efficiency to wastewater treatment plants, a Pennsylvania facility used data loggers to analyze motor utilization, a first step toward cutting energy costs and meeting environmental rules.

132 SMMA Spring Management Conference Navigates Recovery (April 2010)

The SMMA – Motor and Motion Association is ditching the slickers and galoshes for this year’s Spring Management Conference, themed “After the Storm: Navigating in the New World.”

133 Development of an Educational Engineering Workshop on Electric Vehicle and Motor Technology (June 2010)

This paper describes the development of an educational program centered on electric motor and electric vehicle technology at the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Edgerton Center.

134 The Case for Hollow-Shaft Torque Motors (August 2010)

Permanent-magnet, synchronous-torque motors offer significant advantages on high-energy-consuming and high-dynamic applications.

135 Reducing Electricity Cost through Use of Premium Efficiency Motors (February 2010)

motors with premium efficiency counterparts presents businesses with a significant opportunity to reduce operating costs. A comparison between premium and standard efficiency motors from 0.25 to 10 horsepower is conducted; comparisons of full-load efficiencies are shown, and estimated payback periods are calculated. Methods for calculating the yearly kilowatt-hour consumption and yearly cost savings of premium efficiency motors for this horsepower range are also given. The cost advantages of premium efficiency motors are summarized, and relevant examples of real world cost savings are shown.

136 Direct Drive Technology and its Impact on the Gearmotor Business (December 2009)

An exploration of direct drive motor trends and examples of design uses for direct drives as replacements for gear drives or belt drives.

137 Lower-Loss Technology for a Stepping Motor (April 2009)

The demand for stepping motors with high efficiency and low losses has been increasing, although the demand had been previously focused on high torque. Also, the selection of the most suitable grade of lamination for improvement in fastening of the laminated cores has reduced losses significantly at their peak, when compared to conventional stepping motors. Lowering the losses of the motor has enabled continuous operation that was previously impossible. An expansion of the stepping motor’s usage into applications where another motor has been used for continuous operation and other uses—due to the heat generation problem—can now be pursued. In addition, these motors are very effective for energy saving. This paper explains the technology used for lowering the iron losses of the stepping motor.

138 Historic Danish Theatre Gets a Facelift (April 2009)

The Royal Danish Theatre has occupied the heart of Copenhagen for centuries and recently upgraded to a new control system featuring Sprint Electric DC drives to extend the lives of the existing motors, keeping replacement costs down. The Swedish stage design and technology company Visual Act retained most of the original motors and mechanics while providing a much-needed facelift to the stage.

139 Reducing Core Loss of Segmented Laminations (June 2009)

The recent trend toward using segmented laminations as a means to increase slot fill and facilitate automated fabrication of electric machines comes with a penalty of increased core loss at the segment joints.

140 Electromagnetic Know-How (August 2012)

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software can be used for a variety of mechanical engineering tasks, including injection molding simulation of plastic parts, analysis of aerospace components, impact and crash analysis of automobiles and the electromagnetic analysis of motors, actuators, transformers and sensors.

141 Bearing Protection Needed if Inverter-Duty Motors Are to Live up to their Name (August 2012)

All major manufacturers of 3-phase AC induction motors offer "inverter-duty" or "inverter-ready” models, but while these motors have inverter-rated insulation to protect the windings, the bearings--their most vulnerable parts--are too often ignored.

142 Diagnosing the Health of Medical Motors (March 2015)

John Morehead, national sales manager of Crouzet Motors (Vista, CA), was bunkered down in his office in Palatine, IL surrounded at all points by ankle-deep snow from an unfortunately terrible Chicago’s winter night.

143 Girls Love Science (April 2015)

Hi. My name is Renee. I’m 12. You might remember me from about a year ago, when my dad wrote about me and the home-made motor project we did together (“Make the Connection,” February 2014).

144 Whats In a Meme (April 2015)

Rosetta Mission mixes with Maxon, Kim K for one unforgettable photo

145 Stepper Motor Actuators (June 2015)

How would you compare the efficiency and capabilities of hybrid stepper motor actuators vs. can stack stepper motor actuators?

146 Gear Fault Diagnosis by Motor Current Analysis: Application to Industrial Cases (February 2015)

The use of motor current signature analysis (MCSA) for motor fault detection — such as a broken rotor bar — is now well established. However, detection of mechanical faults related to the driven system remains a more challenging task. Recently there has been a growing interest for detection of gear faults by MCSA. Advantages and drawbacks of these MCSA-type techniques are presented and discussed on a few industrial cases.

147 Motors and Motion Meet in St. Louis (December 2014)

The motors might be small, but the big-brain technology driving these electrical wonders was on full display at the 2014 Small Motor & Motion Association Fall Technical Conference, convened November 4-6 in St. Louis, MO. SMMA, the manufacturing trade association (120 members strong) that tends to the best interests of the electric motor and motion control industries — including manufacturers, suppliers, users, consultants and universities — played gracious host to a wide array of presenters from an equally diverse range of sources — from academia to the federal government. Like gears, motors are most everywhere, as evidenced by SMMA’s membership (consumer-, public interest-, national defense- and commercial-oriented) demographic which includes: appliance; transportation; medical equipment; office automation and computers; aerospace; and industrial automation. The association’s mission: To “serve as the principal voice of the electric motors and drives industry” and to provide a forum to “develop, collect and disseminate technical and management knowledge.”

148 The Small Motor Rule, How Will This Affect You (December 2014)

According to the Department of Energy (DOE), more than half of all electrical energy consumed in the U.S. is used by electric motors. To address this, several years ago, the DOE conducted a technical study as to what could be done to raise the efficiency levels of “small” motors. After years of study and litigation, the Small Motor Rule (SMR) was passed that covers two-digit NEMA frame single- and three-phase ¼ through 3 horsepower motors in open enclosures.

149 Industry News (December 2014)

News from around the industry.

150 Energy Efficiency, Configurable Solutions Highlight Pack Expo (December 2014)

A wide variety of companies displayed mechanical power transmission and motion control technologies at Pack Expo, held in November in Chicago. The event, which is the largest packaging and processing trade show in North America, attracted more than 48,000 attendees, according to show owner and producer PMMI. The four-day event included 2,352 exhibiting companies, an increase of more than 19 percent from the previous show in 2012.

151 When it Comes to Mining, Bigger is Best (June 2015)

One of the key challenges in the mining industry today is maintaining throughput in the face of ore grade quality that has declined by 40 percent in the last decade.

152 Industry News (June 2015)

News from Around the Industry

153 Industry News (October 2015)

News From the gear Industry

154 Motor Management - Best Practices (December 2015)

Energy costs and downtime can be greatly reduced by instituting a motor management plan. Part II of this three-part series specifically addresses the establishment of a motor failure policy and the development of purchasing specifications. Part I addressed the general aspects of a motor management plan, including the first steps of creating a motor inventory and guidelines for motor repair and replacement. Part III will examine motor repair specifications as well as preventive and predictive maintenance.

155 Reducing Food Processing Plant Energy Costs (February 2016)

U.S. manufacturers, such as food processors, face an unprecedented competitive environment and must look for ways to be profitable without negatively affecting the quality of finished products.

156 Motor Management Best Practices Part 3 (February 2016)

This three-part series on motor management best practices focuses on the importance of instituting a motor management plan as a necessity in effectively administering the electric motors in a facility. The goal of a motor management plan is to take advantage of opportunities for energy savings and increased productivity using energy efficient, reliable motors such as NEMA Premium efficiency motors, herein referred to as “premium efficiency” motors.

157 Motor Management - Best Practices (October 2015)

Reducing losses and increasing profits by instituting a motor management plan is what this series of articles is all about. Here in Part I, we discuss how to create a motor inventory and establish repair-or-replace motor guidelines. Subsequent topics in this three-part series will address (Part II) motor failure policies and purchasing specifications, and (Part III) repair specifications and preventive and predictive maintenance, respectively.

158 The Doomsday Clock is Ticking for Gearmotor Manufacturers (October 2015)

The secondhand on the Doomsday dial ominously spins around the face, slowly but ever so surely inching the motor industry towards its inevitable terminus:

159 The Race for Efficiency (August 2015)

Over the past few decades, energy efficiency in motors has become an ever-increasing concern for OEMs and manufacturers alike. With multiple energy bills mandating higher efficiency across ever-broader spectrums of motors, including the most recent Small Motor Rule by the Department of Energy, efficiency has become an essential consideration when choosing a new motor.

160 The Importance of Thermal Protection for Torque Motors (August 2015)

When talking about high-end machining or manufacturing applications that include direct-drive technology, one of the key advantages of utilizing this particular transmission method is its endurance. Because of the very nature of direct-drive motors they are able to operate at peak performance levels indefinitely — without any kind of wear or aging — as long as the motor isn’t pushed past its capacity. Unfortunately, because this isn’t a perfect world, unexpected things can happen which can cause the motor to overheat. Whether the heat source is due to a parameter being input incorrectly, or an unexpected external force causing more resistance than expected — it is important to have certain forms of thermal protection in place. Since torque motors are built in such a way that they cannot be repaired and yet maintain their efficiency, it is vital to prevent any overheating — thus precluding the need to purchase a new one.

161 Motor Madness (October 2015)

This issue we take a long, hard look at motor efficiency, and you should, too. After all, electric motors used in industrial settings are the single largest consumer of electricity in the United States. Upgrading your electric motors is not only good for the environment, but it’s also good for your bottom line. Sure, saving electricity lessens the burden on our country’s energy infrastructure. But it also saves you money in the long run.

162 Product News (December 2014)

News from the industry about new products.

163 Made in the USA, Sourced in China (October 2014)

If you read only one article this issue, it should be Norm Parker’s article on the Chinese bearing manufacturing industry. Parker is an engineer with General Motors, a true industry insider who has become a regular contributor to Power Transmission Engineering.

164 Drive and Motor Basics (October 2013)

A discussion of the basics in DC drives, DC motors, AC drives, AC motors and synchronous motors.

165 PT Extras (December 2013)

Video from Maxon Motors, Hannover Messe on our LinkedIn page and the NFPA annual conference on our Facebook page.

166 Product News (December 2013)

The complete Product News section from the December 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

167 The Workhorse of Industry: The Induction Motor (December 2013)

A brief overview of the induction motor, including the basics of construction, performance and variable speed drives.

168 Microstepping Tutorial (October 2013)

This article describes the challenges involved in designing and implementing microstepping systems.

169 Brush DC Motor Runs Along (August 2013)

Everything started in 1800 when Volta developed the first DC battery. Faraday used the DC battery to develop the first electric motor. It used brushes to transfer the battery voltage and current to the rotating disk rotor. This was in mid-1831. Thus was born the brush DC motor.

170 High-Frequency, GaN Diode-Free Motor Drive Inverter with Pure Sine Wave Output (October 2012)

This article presents the first kW-Class, 3-phase GaN-based inverter. Hard-switched at 100-kHz PWM, its heart is a 6-in-1 power module with 600-V GaN power HEMTs, achieving a new efficiency of 98.5%, a more than 2% improvement.

171 Cruising with Curiosity (December 2012)

Power Transmission Components from Forest City Gear, Kaydon Bearings and Maxon Motors help power NASA's Curiosity Mars Rover.

172 Motion, Drive and Automation at Hannover Messe 2013 (February 2013)

Power transmission and motion control companies will be on-hand during Hannover Messe 2013 to display the latest technology offerings in key product categories including roller bearings, gears, pumps, motors, transmissions, drive system components, clutches and braking systems.

173 Make the Connection (February 2014)

Recently I had a disturbing conversation with a colleague here at the office. During the conversation, it became clear to me that my co-worker -- a really intelligent guy whom I respect a lot -- had no idea how even the most simple electric motor works.

174 Brushless PM-Motors Speed Ahead (June 2014)

There are more brushless PM motors being made every day. These brushless PM motors are smaller in size -- i.e., less than 50 watts in power output found in hard-disk drives, CD and DVD players and many portable medical devices. Servo systems with brushless PM motors ranging from 50 watts to 50 kilowatts are now challenging the larger electric motor applications. A few manufacturers have pushed brushless PM motors above 200 kW.

175 Product News (September 2014)

The complete Product News section from the September 2014 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

176 Full Throttle (September 2014)

The Formula Renault 3.5 is seen as a crucial stepping stone on the way into the premier class, the Formula 1. Ambitious racers do not just bring their talents - they also have highly efficient motors on board to control the throttle of their 530-hp V8 engines.

177 High-Tech Motors Evolving from PM Muck (September 2014)

University lab's motor eliminates pricey rare-earth magnets.

178 Low-Efficiency Motors and Gears Still Prevalent (October 2014)

Electric motor-driven systems are the single largest enduser of electricity, accounting for over 40% of global consumption according to the International Energy Agency.

179 Industry News (August 2014)

The complete Industry News section from the August 2014 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

180 The Reluctance Motor Springs Forth (August 2014)

There are three major types of reluctance motors: all three reluctance motors are non-permanent magnet, brushless motors. They are synchronous motors with a non-linear relationship between torque and current. The variable-reluctance step and switched-reluctance motors utilize the principle of magnetic attraction by inducing magnet poles within the soft-iron rotor, and by energizing a set of coils wound around stator teeth resident in the laminated stator. These two reluctance motors must be sequentially excited to achieve continuous, steady-state rotation. The design of all reluctance motors requires finite element analysis (FEA) software.

181 The Ever-Efficient Motor (April 2014)

This product focus highlights the latest technology in electric motors.

182 The Step Motor (April 2014)

Step motors come in many sizes and shapes. But they all share one item in common - each step motor type moves in discrete-degree steps. They react to a series of voltage pulses supplied by their basic controller, known as an "indexer." The step motor was the first to accept digital pulses, then move or rotate a prescribed amount without any feedback device. All step motors are position devices without the need to use any feedback devices. They operate primarily in an open-loop control scheme.

183 Motor Appreciation (April 2014)

When I woke up this morning, my house was a comfortable 68°F, despite the fact that overnight temperatures in the Chicago area were close to freezing. I don’t often think about the blower motor that helps circulate the warm air from my furnace throughout my house, but today I was grateful for it...

184 Replacing Motors, Counting Savings (Spring 2007)

Th e total U.S. electric motor base exceeds 100 million motors and consumes more than 50% of all electricity generated in the country. Small motors—fractional horsepower to 20-hp—comprise 99% of the motor population but consume only 25% of all generated electricity (Refs. 1,3,10,14).

News Items About motor control

1 Maxon Releases DC Servo Motor Controller (April 22, 2013)
Maxon precision motor’s newly released DC servo motor controller, the ESCON 50/5 OEM module is a 4 quadrant Pulse Width Modulated (...

2 Data Device Corporation Introduces BLDC Motor Controller (May 8, 2018)
Data Device Corporation (DDC) introduces a high performance DSP based family of programmable, turnkey motor controllers designed to preci...

3 Sevcon Motor Controllers Serve Electric Scooter Industry (June 13, 2011)
With growing worldwide demand for electric scooters, Vmoto E-max has specified new advanced technology motor controllers from S...

4 Automation Direct Adds Manual Motor Controllers/Disconnects (November 2, 2010)
The Bryant line of manual motor controllers (MMC) now available through AutomationDirect is UL listed as "suitable as motor disconne...

5 Curtiss-Wright Supplies Motor Controllers for Racing Team (July 31, 2014)
Curtiss-Wright’s Industrial division has announced that, via the Lynch Motor Company, it has supplied Sigmadrive motor controllers ...

6 Medium Voltage Motor Control Industry Slowly Recovers (January 20, 2012)
The global market for medium voltage motor control centers was worth more than $140 million in 2010, with more than 5,300 vertical sectio...

7 Portescap DC Motor Controller Provides Reliable, Customized Solution (March 6, 2018)
Portescap introduces a new autoclavable Brushless DC motor controller, the CNT1530, for driving large bone orthopedic handpiece motors. T...

8 Siemens Motor Control Centers Now Available as Standard Catalog Offering (May 5, 2015)
Siemens recently announced its motor control centers are now available as a standard catalog offering. The new offer eliminates the need ...

9 DDC Motor Controller Provides Speed, Torque and Position Control (February 9, 2016)
Data Device Corporation (DDC) introduces a new, low-cost BLDC motor controller for speed, torque and position control. The MC-5000 series...

10 Lenze’s New Inverter Offers IP65 Protection to Vector-Based Motor Controls (June 11, 2007)
The new SMV frequency inverter from Lenze Ltd. includes an enclosure that allows outdoor use or use in damp environments with protection ...

11 Danfoss' New VLT Drive Handles Extended Motor Control Requirement (May 30, 2007)
Danfoss Drives' VLT® AutomationDrive variable frequency drives are now available in the 75-100 HP power range at 380-480/500 VAC. T...

12 PI Releases 2-Axis Piezo Motor Controller (October 18, 2010)
  The C-867 controller is designed for closed-loop positioning systems equipped with PILine piezo linear motor drives. A compac...

13 Pittman Motors BGE Series Servo Motor Controllers Offer Four-Quadrant Digital Speed Control for DC Motors (October 1, 2015)
Pittman Motors recently introduced the BGE Series of Servo Motor Controllers, a family of compact four-quadrant positioning motion contro...

14 Siemens Introduces Re-Engineered Motor Control Centers (August 17, 2011)
Siemens Industry, Inc. introduces its new family of tiastar Motor Control Centers (MCC) manufactured at its 200,000 square-foot plant in ...

15 Dunkermotoren Releases CANopen Brushless DC Motor Control (July 21, 2011)
A new, compact four-quadrant positioning motion controller with integral output stage is now available from Dunkermotoren USA to control ...