Articles About drive systems
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This paper will look at the solutions that current drive and motor technology can offer in not only improving tension control but also solving several other issues that are inherent to systems with high ratio gearing.
The complete product news section from the October 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering (PTE).
New products within the Industry
Highlights from some of the gear, gear drive, power transmission component, software, materials and related exhibitors at Gear Expo 2017.
News about new Products in the industry.
The performance of high-speed helical geartrains is of particular importance for tiltrotor aircraft drive systems. These drive systems are used to provide speed reduction/torque multiplication from the gas turbine output shaft and provide the necessary offset between these parallel shafts in the aircraft. Four different design configurations have been tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center, High-Speed Helical Geartrain Test Facility. The design configurations included the current aircraft design, current design with isotropic superfinished gear surfaces, double-helical design (inward and outward pumping), increased pitch (finer teeth), and an increased helix angle. All designs were tested at multiple input shaft speeds (up to 15,000 rpm) and applied power (up to 5,000 hp). Also two lubrication, system-related, variables were tested: oil inlet temperature (160â“250° F) and lubricating jet pressure (60â“80 psig). Experimental data recorded from these tests included power loss of the helical system under study, the temperature increase of the lubricant from inlet to outlet of the drive system and fling-off temperatures (radially and axially). Also, all gear systems were tested with and without shrouds around the gears.
In looking for potential opportunities to reduce energy consumption via the drive system, a number of areas should be considered.
While it is valid to state that energy efficiency is defined as the same level of production being achieved at an overall lower energy cost, it is equally important for todayâ™s machine builders and automation engineers alike to remember that an energy-efficient system can actually translate into higher productivity. This is achievable through a comprehensive approach to energy management.
Can direct drive technology improve your bottom line? Manufacturers relying upon drive systems in their production process have long sought ways to improve gearbox efficiency. While a gearbox-driven system has been the mainstay for manufacturers, it has also been, among other things, the source of frequent breakdowns, expensive line stoppages and increasingly costly maintenance.
Even when the critical components of industrial power transmission gear drive systems are properly designed, specified and manufactured consistent with application requirements, performance problems can develop over time and failure may follow.
It's a fact that drive systems wouldn't function properly or efficiently without couplings. They quietly go about their business of transferring motion from one drive element to the next. In the PT market today, couplings have the unique challenge of satisfying a variety of customer needs including tighter tolerances, higher speeds and a more versatile selection process.
Sustainability is becoming one of the most important aspects within the power transmission business. Users demand low-maintenance drive systems with as little disruption as possible, and expect lifetimes of more than 10,000 hours. Approximately 40 percent of long-term gearbox leakages can be traced back to poor interaction between the radial shaft seal (RSS) and the lubricant. Thus, it becomes essential to analyze the tribological system as a whole, which includes the gear oil, seal grease (if required), elastomer material and design, and the shaft.
Latest information about upcoming products.
The latest mechanical power transmission products from Nord Drivesystems, Gearing Solutions, Ogura Industrial, Stafford Manufacturing, Rexnord, Portescap, Steinmeyer, Intellidrives, J.W. Winco and Zero-Max.
Latest news on products.
Most of you who read this magazine have a close relationship with gears and gear drives. According to our surveys, 75% of you recommend, specify or buy them. It's a shame, then, that the majority of you will miss Gear Expo (Oct. 24-26 in Columbus, OH) this year.
The latest tools and techologies in power transmission, motion control and related components.
The complete Industry News section from the June 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Standardized calculation methods such as ISO 6336 and DIN 3990 already exist to determine the load distributions on gears inside a planetary gearbox, but by their very universal nature, these methods offer varying results depending on the gearbox design. Double helical gears, in particular, can benefit from more specific, complex algorithms to reach a maximum level of efficiency. Double helical gears interact with the rest of the gearbox differently than helical or spur gears, and thus benefit from different analytical models outside the standardized methods. The present research project describes the algorithm to determine the load distribution of planetary gearboxes with double helical gears.
As with just about everything else in the manufacturing world â” and all which that universe entails â” it depends. After all, thatâ™s why the art of manufacturing is a process â” not a one-system-fits-all discipline. Yes, once that process has been properly designed and correctly implemented for a given manufacturing production need, it may well run like the astest, smoothest cookie-cutter-type operation ever devised.
As the old adage goes, "There is more than one way to skin a cat." In the early stages of any project, system designers are faced with choices; whether they are designing a new application or retrofitting an old one, they need to determine what is the most efficient, economical and practical way of completing the task at hand. Though there are usually at least two viable means to accomplish the task, the first step is always to review and weigh the merits of each option.
The complete Industry News section from the September 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
With advances in modern technology reducing demand for envelopes, manufacturers are finding it increasingly hard to justify investment.
A thermo-mechanical model of a splash lubricated one-stage gear unit is presented. This system corresponds to a first step towards the design of a hybrid vehicle gearbox that can operate up to 40,000 rpm on its primary shaft. The numerical model is based on the thermal network method and takes into account power losses due to teeth friction, rolling-elements bearings and oil churning. Some calculations underline that oil churning causes a high amount of power loss. A simple method to reduce this source of power losses is presented, and its influence on the gear unit efficiency and its thermal capacity is computed.
Process Expo and Pack Expo Highlight the Latest Technology for Food & Beverage Applications.
In the process of applying industrial drive products, we occasionally are misled into believing that we are applying horsepower. The real driving force is not horsepower - it is torque. This paper is developed to impart a deeper understanding of torque, its relationship to horsepower, and the types of loads we most frequently encounter.
In today's highly competitive world, the better someone understands the advantages and benefits of direct drive technology, then the more they will have an advantage in machine building, giving them an edge over their competition.
Referencing a June 2014 Article, âœHigh Gear Ratio Epicyclic Drives Analysis,â by Dr. Alex Kapelevich: I have designed a small compound epicyclic gearbox with common planets. Sun = 10 teeth Planet = 14 teeth Ring Gear stationary = 38 teeth Ring gear output = 41 teeth profile shifted onto a 38 tooth pitch diameter. Carriers are simply cages for the planet alignment and location. According to your article, and according to my calculations and the prototype I have built, my inputto- output ratio is a reduction of 65.6:1. I am using a ~ VG1 viscosity grease and Nylatron materials for the gears and carriers.
New HMI from Siemens, ITAMCO ramps up additive manufacturing, LM76 introduces new linear bearings, plus other new products from around the industry.
As gear efficiency is improved in small steps, it is important to be able to distinguish actual improvements from scatter that can occur while testing. An FZG back-to-back gear test rig was used to investigate how the assembly and re-assembly of the same test setup affects the measurements. A spread in torque loss between one assembly and another of the same test setup were observed. Rig conditions also affected the spread in input torque. With knowledge of how the spread in torque loss varies due to assembly, test results could be distinguished between changes due to assembly and actual differences between tests.
Todayâ™s newspaper advertisers demand vibrant, attractive color printing, and newspaper printers are constantly looking for methods to improve printing processes to meet these demands. When it comes to improving the printing process, the key component is to choose the right printing press.
For the lubrication of open gear drives used in different industrial applications such as cement and coal mills, rotary furnaces, or where the sealing conditions are difficult, semi-fluid greases are often used in preference to fluid oils. For girth gear applications the greases are used with a splash or spray lubrication system. The selection of such greases influences pitting lifetime and the load-carrying capacity of the gears, as well as wear behavior
Synchronous drives are especially well-suited for low-speed, high-torque applications. Their positive driving nature prevents potential slippage associated with V-belt drives, and even allows significantly greater torque carrying capability. Small pitch synchronous drives operating at speeds of 50 ft/min (0.25 m/s) or less are considered to be low-speed. Care should be taken in the drive selection process as stall and peak torques can sometimes be very high. While intermittent peak torques can often be carried by synchronous drives without special considerations, high cyclic peak torque loading should be carefully reviewed.
This paper presents a joint project conducted by Ashwoods Electric Motors and Oerlikon Fairfield that uses planetary drives with an integrated electric motor. Current solutions used in production of off-highway vehicles rely upon large, heavy and inefficient brushed DC or induction motors, coupled to a planetary gearbox. This presents a number of challenges to the vehicle designers such as: limited vehicle range, limited space around the motor/drivetrain, and motor durability. The proposed integrated system utilizes an Oerlikon Fairfield Torque Hub, widely used in off-highway vehicles, and the Ashwoods first-to-market, interior permanent magnet motor. How these products are integrated, i.e. incorporating a brake solution, represents a market-changing product. Using interior permanent magnet (IPM) technology in the motor design means the motor can be up to 70% lighter, 70% smaller and 20% more efficient than traditional motors used in off-highway traction applications.
I'm not able to get a good connection between the pulley and shaft in my drive assembly. Could you explain the various ways of connecting a pulley to a shaft to prevent the pulley from slipping?
Implementing a power-on-demand concept based on variable speed drives allows for energy saving in any application that involves pumps or hydraulic systems. And when used in combination with an intelligent wiring and communication system, relevant machine data can also be easily recorded - the basis for comprehensive power management.
Gearing is an essential component in conveyors. The material handling industry appears divided between those who favor high-end three-stage helical bevel gearboxes and those who rely on less expensive worm gearing. But thereâ™s an often over-looked alternative, the two-stage helical bevel gearbox.
Framo Morat and Dunkermotoren Produce Drive Systems for Automatic Guided Vehicles.
With the constant push for sustainable and environmentally friendly procedures on Earth, you'd think weâ™d apply the same rules high above it.
All about new Products
When software goes bad, what do we call it? System failure? Human failure? A virus? A number of words will work. How about this? Glitch. It has that onomatopoeic quality that fairly screams, Downtime! And with good reason -- software-generated miscalculations can have very expensive -- if not perilous -- repercussions.
When it comes to gear design software, the learning curve never ends. The leading vendors offer various training programs to keep their users well-informed.
The complete Product News section from the August 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
News from around the Industry
America suffers $4.4 billion in losses due to earthquakes every year. While that's a drop in the bucket for our $16 trillion plus GDP, it's still a substantial amount of money, and some people are working to lessen those losses. One group is Earthquake Protection Systems (EPS), a company that is designing bearings to better protect buildings from earthquake damage.
This special advertising section features some of our VIP exhibitors.
The following recap looks at some of the exhibitors from Gear Expo that manufacture mechanical power transmission components or provide resources for these components.
The complete Product News section from the September 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Product News section from the February 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
When you work day-in and day-out with components like gears, bearings or electric motors, for example, it's easy to forget that those components are always part of a much bigger system.
The complete Industry News section from the June 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Product News section from the February 2010 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Explosion-Proof Motors in Division 2 Areas and DC Drive Fundamentals
In this work a physically based method for the tribological investigation of worm gears is presented.
Tooth contact analysis (TCA) is an important tool directed to the determination of contact patterns, contact paths, and transmission errors in gear drives. In this work, a new general approach that is applicable to any kind of gear geometry is proposed.
A worm drive is a geared power transmission device in which a worm meshes with a worm gear to transmit power between two non-intersecting shafts that are oriented at a right angle. The worm drive has been an active and challenging topic of technological study since Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519).
Energy efficiency is for more than just motors. Here are some mechatronics companies making sure you get more bang for your buck when it comes to your power bill.
The technology continues to evolve in chain- and belt-driven systems
If you can find that magic bullet that will reduce the machining process, you can achieve meaningful efficiency gains. It is imperative that check-weighers or in-motion weighing systems remain both accurate and efficient while attaining a consistently smooth operation because they dynamically weigh products as they move across the belt.
The complete Product News section from the December 2009 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete product news section from the December 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete product news section from the June 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Industry News section from the June 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Gearmotor manufacturers find new ways to push the envelope. (With Sidebar on new alternative to planetary gearboxes)
News about latest Products in the Industry
The primary driver of an airport baggage handling queue conveyor must be able to operate under increasingly demanding operating conditions, including frequent starting and stopping. The selection of the primary driver of the queue conveyor is dependent on multiple criteria, including dimensional requirements and durability characteristics.
While safety functions have been integrated into drives packages for some years now, the current trends are very exciting, from many angles. Today, a full complement of safety functions can be implemented at the front-end of a system design on all types of production machines, including printing, packaging, converting, materials handling and other equipment used throughout American industry.
In this special news section, the editors of Power Transmission Engineering have gathered the latest product news and information from the gears and gear drives sector.
One of the driving forces behind the industrial revolution was the inventionâ”more than a century agoâ”of the electric motor. Its widespread use for all kinds of mechanical motion has made life simpler and has ultimately aided the advancement of humankind. And the advent of the inverter that facilitated speed and torque control of AC motors has propelled the use of electric motors to new realms that were inconceivable just a mere 30 years ago. Advances in power semiconductorsâ”along with digital controlsâ”have enabled realization of motor drives that are robust and can control position and speed to a high degree of precision. The use of AC motor drives has also resulted in energy savings and improved system efficiency. This paper reviews the development and application of inverter technology to AC motor drives and presents a vision for motor drive technology.
Our politicians in Washington continue dithering over the Obama administration energy bill aimed at developing alternative, green sources of energy production. As a result, when this country will have a viable energy program in place is anyoneâ™s guess, given the usual D.C. gridlock. And yet, Americans can take more than cold comfort in the fact that at least some government agenciesâ”U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)â”and the private sectorâ”some major manufacturersâ”are doing more than their share of work in trying to harness our existing, fossil-based energy sources in such a way that they are used to their best efficiencies.
In order to make better purchasing decisions about centrifuge applications, one must understand the concept of centrifuges and the drives that operate this equipment.
The Baldor Reliance RPM AC Cooling Tower Direct Drive Motor is designed exclusively for the cooling tower industry. This motor combines the technologies of the power-dense, laminated frame RPM AC motor with high performance, permanent magnet salient pole rotor designs.
Given that many different hydraulic systems recommend the use of either frequency converters or cyclic control (soft starter technologies), the question must be asked - Which one of these solutions is the most cost-effective in reducing energy consumption and providing the most satisfactory payback time?
SPS-IPC Drives 2011, which took place in Nuremburg, Germany in November, covered all components down to complete systems and integrated solutions in the electric automation industry.
The complete Product News section from the February 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Product News section from the December 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
This article is designed to help describe the selection process of a reducer to be used in the parcel handling industry. It will go over the different applications for which gearboxes are used throughout parcel handling facilities such as UPS, FedEx and DHL.
Synchronous motors controlled by variable speed drives are bringing higher efficiencies to industrial applications.
Much of the industrial energy being consumed by systems is wasted through inefficiency. For this article, a system will be defined as the following components working together: electrical input power, variable frequency drives, induction motors, gearboxes and transmission elements (chains, belts, etc.).
An exploration of direct drive motor trends and examples of design uses for direct drives as replacements for gear drives or belt drives.
Entrust enlists Advanced Machine & Engineering for 7-axis, 2-spindle performance.
Presented is a high-phase, order-induction motor drive for use in a series hybrid architecture. This solution overcomes numerous compromises in current hybrid powertrain designs. Notably, it allows for a vehicle that is competitive in terms of performance and cost.
Brevini Power Transmission helps spectators enjoy stadium sights and sounds.
The complete Industry News section from the February 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering
The federal government estimates that manufacturing uses about one third of the energy consumed in the U.S., so manufacturing companies can play an important role in building a sustainable future.
The Royal Danish Theatre has occupied the heart of Copenhagen for centuries and recently upgraded to a new control system featuring Sprint Electric DC drives to extend the lives of the existing motors, keeping replacement costs down. The Swedish stage design and technology company Visual Act retained most of the original motors and mechanics while providing a much-needed facelift to the stage.
The complete product news section from the June 2009 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Sunnen grows product portfolio with motion control solution from Siemens.
Servo system from Bosch-Rexroth helps create more efficient beverage palletizer.
If youâ™re replacing your belts more than once per year, itâ™s time to analyze your drive. From belt crimping damage to high belt installation tension to sprocket misalignment and adverse environmental conditions, this guide walks you through how to identify the reasons behind premature failure and makes recommendations on corrective and preventive measures.
Typically, zoo safari rides consist of cramped trams that take guests five miles-per-hour past various exhibits. You might catch a bear sleeping, hear scripted, narrated fun facts or be somewhat entertained by eccentric tour guides, but thereâ™s never much to look at except concession stands or souvenir shops.
Bosch Rexroth assists Bell-Everman with linear actuator development.
Compact loaders are employed where large machines have no access or are over dimensioned. New hydrostatic drives from ZF meet the demanding needs of this market.
A new preventive maintenance program at a leading New England Ivy League university demonstrates how the push for more sustainable "green" building management has led to a growing awareness of a chronic, widespread problem with HVAC motors—electrical bearing damage and failure.
EECV in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, keeps on expanding and improving. In 2013 their transhipment of coal increased and they installed a new bucket wheel reclaimer with a capacity of 3,500 tons per hour. They chose a direct-drive system from Bosch Rexroth for this big bucket wheel. The drive system consists of a HÃ¤gglunds MB 1600 motor and a DUe drive unit.
ContiTech and Wöhr Team up for Unique Residential Solution.
This paper outlines the design considerations that go into construction of a drive system in order to explain the importance of specific data, why it is required, and where design freedom is necessary. Apart from loads and speeds, interface dimensions and site specific conditions are also needed. Deciding up front which gear rating practice to select can affect the torque capacity of the drive train by ~15%.
A brief overview of the induction motor, including the basics of construction, performance and variable speed drives.
The complete Product News section from the December 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
What is the recommended method of gripping a spinning shaft (with up to 130 hp of rotational energy) to install pre-tension thrust bearings and conventional thrust bearings (load = hundreds of pounds) when the shaft cannot have any high points because it must pass through an area of tight clearances to assemble? Will snap rings still withstand the harsh vibration of this environment?
EDITORSâ™ NOTE: âœThe Applications of Bevel Gearsâ is the excerpted third chapter of Dr. Hermann Stadtfeldâ™s latest book â” Gleason Bevel Gear Technology (The Gleason Works, Rochester, New York, USA; All rights reserved. 2014; ISBN 978-0-615-96492-8.), which appears here unabridged through the kind graces of Dr. Stadtfeld and Gleason Corp. Future installments will appear exclusively in Power Transmission Engineering and Gear Technology magazine over the next 12 to 18 months.
This paper presents a physically grounded calculation method to determine the efficiency of worm gear drives. This computation is based on the Institute of Machine Elements, Gears, and Transmissions (MEGT) tribological simulation, which can determine the local tooth friction coefficients (Ref. 1). With this knowledge other power losses such as the bearings, oil churnings and seals power losses can also be calculated.
The improvement of the energy efficiency of industrial gear motors and gearboxes is a common problem for many gear unit manufacturers and end-users. As is typical of other mechanical components, the radial lip seals used in such units generate friction and heat, thus contributing to energy losses of mechanical systems. There exist today simulation tools that are already helping improve the efficiency of mechanical systems â” but accurate models for seal frictional losses need to be developed. In this paper SKF presents an engineering model for radial lip seal friction based on a physical approach.
Experts gathered at the 9th CTI Symposium to discuss the challenges of reducing noise, improving energy efficiency and meeting the changing demands of the marketplace
In recent years the estimation of gearbox power loss is attracting more interest â” especially in the wind turbine and automotive gearbox industry â” but also in industrial gearboxes where heat dissipation is a consideration as well. As new transmissions concepts are being researched to meet both ecological and commercial demands, a quick and reliable estimation of overall efficiency becomes inevitable in designing the optimal gearbox.
The changing landscape of hydraulic drives is leading many fluid power specialists to quickly adapt to using variable speed pump drives. Optimum utilization of these drives requires, in many cases, additional system design considerations.
A discussion of the basics in DC drives, DC motors, AC drives, AC motors and synchronous motors.
Dave Soma, the mechanical supervisor at Leland Olds Station, a coal-fired power plant near Stanton, North Dakota, says he and his maintenance team care deeply about keeping the plant running and providing people electricity, especially in the dead of winter.
The complete Industry News section from the August 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Beverage industry conveyor pours on advantages in distribution center. Case study describes the new conveying systems at Motion Industries Canada.
All major manufacturers of 3-phase AC induction motors offer "inverter-duty" or "inverter-readyâ models, but while these motors have inverter-rated insulation to protect the windings, the bearings--their most vulnerable parts--are too often ignored.
Fairchild International, a U.S.-based manufacturer of underground mining equipment, has produced battery-powered DC scoops since the early 1980s. With 17 different models available, Fairchild offers a size to fit any coal mining operation, making it the leader in the industry.
The complete Product News section from the June 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
This article presents the first kW-Class, 3-phase GaN-based inverter. Hard-switched at 100-kHz PWM, its heart is a 6-in-1 power module with 600-V GaN power HEMTs, achieving a new efficiency of 98.5%, a more than 2% improvement.
Gear drives deliver power to industrial equipment such as bulk material conveyors, mixers, pumps and paper mills. The reliability that translates into greater uptime and profitability begins by specifying and selecting the proper drives for these critical applications.
Power transmission and motion control companies will be on-hand during Hannover Messe 2013 to display the latest technology offerings in key product categories including roller bearings, gears, pumps, motors, transmissions, drive system components, clutches and braking systems.
The complete Industry News section from the August 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The mechanical components of your drive system play a major role in overall system efficiency. Don't cut corners.
Hydrostatic drive concept gives LinsiTrak flexibility and versatility.
Our product focus includes the latest technology in gears and gear drives from the leading manufacturers.
One of the key challenges in the mining industry today is maintaining throughput in the face of ore grade quality that has declined by 40 percent in the last decade.
News Items About drive systems
1 Weg Supplies Drive Systems for Algerian Water Project (June 6, 2011)
Weg is a key supplier of inverter drive systems and soft starters to the Spanish consortium that is constructing the Tlemcem-Honaine desa...
2 Iwis Drive Systems Introduces Maintenance-Free Chains (February 22, 2017)
Iwis drive systems introduces b.dry maintenance-free stainless-steel chains. The corrosion-free chains run completely dry, are extremely ...
3 Stafford Expands Shaft Collars and Couplings for Mechanical Drive Systems (February 23, 2017)
An expanded line of metric shaft collars, couplings, and mounting components suited for mechanical drive systems and structural applicati...
4 Oerlikon Drive Systems Wins CHF 600 Million Contract (May 14, 2013)
Oerlikon’s Drive Systems Segment announces a long term contract worth up to CHF 600 million with a major global agricultural and of...
5 New Rack and Pinion Drives from Atlanta Drive Systems (February 10, 2005)
Zero backlash standard rack & pinion drives that utilizing a split- and dual-pinion arrangement are now available from Atlanta Drive Syst...
6 Atlanta Drive Systems Expands Range of Servo Reducers (April 9, 2006)
Atlanta Drive Systems Inc.expanded their range of servo worm reducers, now offering four levels of precision to meet any application requ...
7 Oerlikon's Drive Systems Segment Inaugurates Third Plant In India (April 28, 2015)
Oerlikon’s Drive Systems Segment recently inaugurated its third plant at Sanand in Gujarat, India. This is the 10th production faci...
8 Oerlikon Drive Systems Exhibits at OTC 2016 (May 4, 2016)
Oerlikon Drive Systems’ off-highway vehicle and industrial equipment brand Oerlikon Fairfield, will participate to Offshore Technol...
9 Atlanta Drive Systems Introduces Economy Planetary Reducers (July 13, 2017)
Atlanta Drive Systems, Inc. announces a new range of Economy Planetary Reducers, offering good performance with an economical price level...
10 Oerlikon Drive Systems India Gets Certified as Great Place to Work (May 17, 2017)
Oerlikon Drive Systems India has been certified by Great Place to Work Institute - a global authority in building, sustaining and recogni...
11 Nexen Roller Pinion System Offers Alternative to Traditional Drive Systems (October 17, 2017)
Nexen Group, Inc. introduces a stainless steel version of its patented precision roller pinion system (RPS). The Nexen RPS engages two te...
12 Power Drive Systems Looks to Grow by Joining IDC-USA (May 14, 2015)
For 40 years, Power Drive Systems, Inc. has been distributing first-class power transmission products to customers across the United Stat...