Rack and Pinion Drives
Articles About Rack and Pinion Drives
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This paper provides a mathematical framework and its implementation for calculating the tooth geometry of arbitrary gear types, based on the basic law of gear kinematics. The rack or gear geometry can be generated in two different ways: by calculating the conjugate geometry and the line of contact of a gear to the given geometric shape of a known geometry (e.g., a cutting hob), or by prescribing the surface of action of two gears in contact and calculating the correspondent flank shapes.
Highlights from some of the gear, gear drive, power transmission component, software, materials and related exhibitors at Gear Expo 2017.
The primary driver of an airport baggage handling queue conveyor must be able to operate under increasingly demanding operating conditions, including frequent starting and stopping. The selection of the primary driver of the queue conveyor is dependent on multiple criteria, including dimensional requirements and durability characteristics.
This article is designed to help describe the selection process of a reducer to be used in the parcel handling industry. It will go over the different applications for which gearboxes are used throughout parcel handling facilities such as UPS, FedEx and DHL.
If you can find that magic bullet that will reduce the machining process, you can achieve meaningful efficiency gains. It is imperative that check-weighers or in-motion weighing systems remain both accurate and efficient while attaining a consistently smooth operation because they dynamically weigh products as they move across the belt.
This paper outlines the design considerations that go into construction of a drive system in order to explain the importance of specific data, why it is required, and where design freedom is necessary. Apart from loads and speeds, interface dimensions and site specific conditions are also needed. Deciding up front which gear rating practice to select can affect the torque capacity of the drive train by ~15%.
In recent years the estimation of gearbox power loss is attracting more interest â” especially in the wind turbine and automotive gearbox industry â” but also in industrial gearboxes where heat dissipation is a consideration as well. As new transmissions concepts are being researched to meet both ecological and commercial demands, a quick and reliable estimation of overall efficiency becomes inevitable in designing the optimal gearbox.
The changing landscape of hydraulic drives is leading many fluid power specialists to quickly adapt to using variable speed pump drives. Optimum utilization of these drives requires, in many cases, additional system design considerations.
EDITORSâ™ NOTE: âœThe Applications of Bevel Gearsâ is the excerpted third chapter of Dr. Hermann Stadtfeldâ™s latest book â” Gleason Bevel Gear Technology (The Gleason Works, Rochester, New York, USA; All rights reserved. 2014; ISBN 978-0-615-96492-8.), which appears here unabridged through the kind graces of Dr. Stadtfeld and Gleason Corp. Future installments will appear exclusively in Power Transmission Engineering and Gear Technology magazine over the next 12 to 18 months.
ContiTech and Wöhr Team up for Unique Residential Solution.
This paper presents a physically grounded calculation method to determine the efficiency of worm gear drives. This computation is based on the Institute of Machine Elements, Gears, and Transmissions (MEGT) tribological simulation, which can determine the local tooth friction coefficients (Ref. 1). With this knowledge other power losses such as the bearings, oil churnings and seals power losses can also be calculated.
With advances in modern technology reducing demand for envelopes, manufacturers are finding it increasingly hard to justify investment.
A thermo-mechanical model of a splash lubricated one-stage gear unit is presented. This system corresponds to a first step towards the design of a hybrid vehicle gearbox that can operate up to 40,000 rpm on its primary shaft. The numerical model is based on the thermal network method and takes into account power losses due to teeth friction, rolling-elements bearings and oil churning. Some calculations underline that oil churning causes a high amount of power loss. A simple method to reduce this source of power losses is presented, and its influence on the gear unit efficiency and its thermal capacity is computed.
Tooth contact analysis (TCA) is an important tool directed to the determination of contact patterns, contact paths, and transmission errors in gear drives. In this work, a new general approach that is applicable to any kind of gear geometry is proposed.
One of the key challenges in the mining industry today is maintaining throughput in the face of ore grade quality that has declined by 40 percent in the last decade.
A brief overview of the induction motor, including the basics of construction, performance and variable speed drives.
The improvement of the energy efficiency of industrial gear motors and gearboxes is a common problem for many gear unit manufacturers and end-users. As is typical of other mechanical components, the radial lip seals used in such units generate friction and heat, thus contributing to energy losses of mechanical systems. There exist today simulation tools that are already helping improve the efficiency of mechanical systems â” but accurate models for seal frictional losses need to be developed. In this paper SKF presents an engineering model for radial lip seal friction based on a physical approach.
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Dave Soma, the mechanical supervisor at Leland Olds Station, a coal-fired power plant near Stanton, North Dakota, says he and his maintenance team care deeply about keeping the plant running and providing people electricity, especially in the dead of winter.
Beverage industry conveyor pours on advantages in distribution center. Case study describes the new conveying systems at Motion Industries Canada.
Even when the critical components of industrial power transmission gear drive systems are properly designed, specified and manufactured consistent with application requirements, performance problems can develop over time and failure may follow.
All major manufacturers of 3-phase AC induction motors offer "inverter-duty" or "inverter-readyâ models, but while these motors have inverter-rated insulation to protect the windings, the bearings--their most vulnerable parts--are too often ignored.
Fairchild International, a U.S.-based manufacturer of underground mining equipment, has produced battery-powered DC scoops since the early 1980s. With 17 different models available, Fairchild offers a size to fit any coal mining operation, making it the leader in the industry.
The complete Product News section from the June 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Gear drives deliver power to industrial equipment such as bulk material conveyors, mixers, pumps and paper mills. The reliability that translates into greater uptime and profitability begins by specifying and selecting the proper drives for these critical applications.
Our product focus includes the latest technology in gears and gear drives from the leading manufacturers.
As with just about everything else in the manufacturing world â” and all which that universe entails â” it depends. After all, thatâ™s why the art of manufacturing is a process â” not a one-system-fits-all discipline. Yes, once that process has been properly designed and correctly implemented for a given manufacturing production need, it may well run like the astest, smoothest cookie-cutter-type operation ever devised.
A discussion of the basics in DC drives, DC motors, AC drives, AC motors and synchronous motors.
The complete Industry News section from the August 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The mechanical components of your drive system play a major role in overall system efficiency. Don't cut corners.
Hydrostatic drive concept gives LinsiTrak flexibility and versatility.
The complete Product News section from the December 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Gearing is an essential component in conveyors. The material handling industry appears divided between those who favor high-end three-stage helical bevel gearboxes and those who rely on less expensive worm gearing. But thereâ™s an often over-looked alternative, the two-stage helical bevel gearbox.
Explosion-Proof Motors in Division 2 Areas and DC Drive Fundamentals
In this work a physically based method for the tribological investigation of worm gears is presented.
Framo Morat and Dunkermotoren Produce Drive Systems for Automatic Guided Vehicles.
A worm drive is a geared power transmission device in which a worm meshes with a worm gear to transmit power between two non-intersecting shafts that are oriented at a right angle. The worm drive has been an active and challenging topic of technological study since Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519).
Gearmotor manufacturers find new ways to push the envelope. (With Sidebar on new alternative to planetary gearboxes)
The latest mechanical power transmission products from Nord Drivesystems, Gearing Solutions, Ogura Industrial, Stafford Manufacturing, Rexnord, Portescap, Steinmeyer, Intellidrives, J.W. Winco and Zero-Max.
The technology continues to evolve in chain- and belt-driven systems
The complete Product News section from the September 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Health monitoring or condition monitoring has been used for many years on machines and in plants where the cost of an outage is high. It allows failures to be anticipated and maintenance or repairs to be scheduled for the least loss of production, as well as avoiding unnecessary periodic maintenance.
A Practical Comparison of Planetary and Orbitless Gear-Heads.
Approximately one quarter of all servo motors around the world require some type of gear reduction in their applications. From large satellite dishes to precision medical devices, gearboxes boost torque and reduce speed for servos in order for them to be sized more efficiently. While gearbox fundamentals haven't changed much over the past 20 years, their effectiveness has improved significantly, driven mostly by the need to accommodate advancements in servo technology.
Machinists Inc. is integrating the machinery, equipment and know-how of The Gear Works-Seattle Inc.
Gear drives focus on longevity, quality and customization.
Process Expo and Pack Expo Highlight the Latest Technology for Food & Beverage Applications.
As the old adage goes, "There is more than one way to skin a cat." In the early stages of any project, system designers are faced with choices; whether they are designing a new application or retrofitting an old one, they need to determine what is the most efficient, economical and practical way of completing the task at hand. Though there are usually at least two viable means to accomplish the task, the first step is always to review and weigh the merits of each option.
Referencing a June 2014 Article, âœHigh Gear Ratio Epicyclic Drives Analysis,â by Dr. Alex Kapelevich: I have designed a small compound epicyclic gearbox with common planets. Sun = 10 teeth Planet = 14 teeth Ring Gear stationary = 38 teeth Ring gear output = 41 teeth profile shifted onto a 38 tooth pitch diameter. Carriers are simply cages for the planet alignment and location. According to your article, and according to my calculations and the prototype I have built, my inputto- output ratio is a reduction of 65.6:1. I am using a ~ VG1 viscosity grease and Nylatron materials for the gears and carriers.
For the lubrication of open gear drives used in different industrial applications such as cement and coal mills, rotary furnaces, or where the sealing conditions are difficult, semi-fluid greases are often used in preference to fluid oils. For girth gear applications the greases are used with a splash or spray lubrication system. The selection of such greases influences pitting lifetime and the load-carrying capacity of the gears, as well as wear behavior
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The performance of high-speed helical geartrains is of particular importance for tiltrotor aircraft drive systems. These drive systems are used to provide speed reduction/torque multiplication from the gas turbine output shaft and provide the necessary offset between these parallel shafts in the aircraft. Four different design configurations have been tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center, High-Speed Helical Geartrain Test Facility. The design configurations included the current aircraft design, current design with isotropic superfinished gear surfaces, double-helical design (inward and outward pumping), increased pitch (finer teeth), and an increased helix angle. All designs were tested at multiple input shaft speeds (up to 15,000 rpm) and applied power (up to 5,000 hp). Also two lubrication, system-related, variables were tested: oil inlet temperature (160â“250° F) and lubricating jet pressure (60â“80 psig). Experimental data recorded from these tests included power loss of the helical system under study, the temperature increase of the lubricant from inlet to outlet of the drive system and fling-off temperatures (radially and axially). Also, all gear systems were tested with and without shrouds around the gears.
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A new preventive maintenance program at a leading New England Ivy League university demonstrates how the push for more sustainable "green" building management has led to a growing awareness of a chronic, widespread problem with HVAC motors—electrical bearing damage and failure.
Synchronous drives are especially well-suited for low-speed, high-torque applications. Their positive driving nature prevents potential slippage associated with V-belt drives, and even allows significantly greater torque carrying capability. Small pitch synchronous drives operating at speeds of 50 ft/min (0.25 m/s) or less are considered to be low-speed. Care should be taken in the drive selection process as stall and peak torques can sometimes be very high. While intermittent peak torques can often be carried by synchronous drives without special considerations, high cyclic peak torque loading should be carefully reviewed.
Implementing a power-on-demand concept based on variable speed drives allows for energy saving in any application that involves pumps or hydraulic systems. And when used in combination with an intelligent wiring and communication system, relevant machine data can also be easily recorded - the basis for comprehensive power management.
Standardized calculation methods such as ISO 6336 and DIN 3990 already exist to determine the load distributions on gears inside a planetary gearbox, but by their very universal nature, these methods offer varying results depending on the gearbox design. Double helical gears, in particular, can benefit from more specific, complex algorithms to reach a maximum level of efficiency. Double helical gears interact with the rest of the gearbox differently than helical or spur gears, and thus benefit from different analytical models outside the standardized methods. The present research project describes the algorithm to determine the load distribution of planetary gearboxes with double helical gears.
Most of you who read this magazine have a close relationship with gears and gear drives. According to our surveys, 75% of you recommend, specify or buy them. It's a shame, then, that the majority of you will miss Gear Expo (Oct. 24-26 in Columbus, OH) this year.
In the process of applying industrial drive products, we occasionally are misled into believing that we are applying horsepower. The real driving force is not horsepower - it is torque. This paper is developed to impart a deeper understanding of torque, its relationship to horsepower, and the types of loads we most frequently encounter.
This paper presents a joint project conducted by Ashwoods Electric Motors and Oerlikon Fairfield that uses planetary drives with an integrated electric motor. Current solutions used in production of off-highway vehicles rely upon large, heavy and inefficient brushed DC or induction motors, coupled to a planetary gearbox. This presents a number of challenges to the vehicle designers such as: limited vehicle range, limited space around the motor/drivetrain, and motor durability. The proposed integrated system utilizes an Oerlikon Fairfield Torque Hub, widely used in off-highway vehicles, and the Ashwoods first-to-market, interior permanent magnet motor. How these products are integrated, i.e. incorporating a brake solution, represents a market-changing product. Using interior permanent magnet (IPM) technology in the motor design means the motor can be up to 70% lighter, 70% smaller and 20% more efficient than traditional motors used in off-highway traction applications.
I'm not able to get a good connection between the pulley and shaft in my drive assembly. Could you explain the various ways of connecting a pulley to a shaft to prevent the pulley from slipping?
As gear efficiency is improved in small steps, it is important to be able to distinguish actual improvements from scatter that can occur while testing. An FZG back-to-back gear test rig was used to investigate how the assembly and re-assembly of the same test setup affects the measurements. A spread in torque loss between one assembly and another of the same test setup were observed. Rig conditions also affected the spread in input torque. With knowledge of how the spread in torque loss varies due to assembly, test results could be distinguished between changes due to assembly and actual differences between tests.
Synchronous motors controlled by variable speed drives are bringing higher efficiencies to industrial applications.
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PERSONNEL CHANGES AND EXPANSION HIGHLIGHT CICERO, ILLINOIS GEAR MANUFACTURER
If you read only one article this issue, it should be Norm Parkerâ™s article on the Chinese bearing manufacturing industry. Parker is an engineer with General Motors, a true industry insider who has become a regular contributor to Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Product News section from the September 2014 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Beginning with a brief summary and update of the latest advances in the calculation methods for worm gears, the author then presents the detailed approach to worm gear geometry found in the revised ISO TR 10828. With that information, and by presenting examples, these new methods are explained, as are their possibilities for addressing the geometrical particularities of worm gears and their impact upon the behavior and load capacity of a gearset under working conditions based on ISO TR 14521 â” Methods B and C. The author also highlights the new possibilities offered on that basis for the further evolution of load capacity calculation of a worm gearset based on load and contact pressure distribution.
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Power Transmission Engineering is collaborating with the Bearing Specialists Association (BSA) on a special section within the magazine. Bearing Briefs will present updated reports on bearing topics for each issue in 2016. Complimentary access to all BSA Bearing and Industry Briefs is available on the BSA website at www.bsahome.org/tools.
News from around the Industry.
In the world of PT components, the clutch gets absolutely no recognition whatsoever. There are entire magazines dedicated to gears, bearings and motors, but clutches get very little press outside of the automotive industry.
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The scene is serene and picturesque. Sunshine reflects off the light chop of the Ohio River, as a barge winds its way into view. While those driving along Louisvilleâ™s River Road may be inclined to reach for a camera to capture this idyllic scene, the mood at Nugent Sand Company is anything but tranquil.
A reader asks what are the required parameters to properly specify a gear.
The complete Product News section from the February 2010 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Product News section from the June 2010 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The Magnetic Gearing and Turbine Corp. (MGT), founded by Australian inventor Andrew French in 2000, manufactures injection molded gears and couplings based entirely on magnetic technology. The repulsive magnetic forces are used to transmit power without losing any energy, and drive shafts rotate completely independently of each other.
Few industries are experiencing change quite as fast as the packaging arena. Lighter-weight containers are being introduced to reduce costs and energy use, packaging is being redesigned to attract consumer attention and manufacturers are using fewer materials in an effort to address environmental concerns.
The complete Product News section from the August 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering
The complete Product News section from the October 2010 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
American Bearing Manufacturers Association (ABMA) Standard 9 and ISO 281 give equations for calculating the basic dynamic radial load rating for ball bearings. These equations are based on a number of assumptions, many of which are not valid for thin-section bearings. (Thin-section bearings are described in ABMA standard 26.2.) Nevertheless, many thin-section bearing catalogs report load ratings based on these equations. Kaydon has developed a new method for calculating the dynamic radial load rating for thin-section ball bearings. The new method uses the contact stress and the number of stress-cycles-per-revolution to calculate the capacity. The new numbers are based on five years of actual test results. These equations can also be used to calculate the dynamic radial load rating for four-point contact ball bearings, which are not covered in ABMA standard 9 or ISO 281.
The complete Product News section from the December 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
It's a fact that drive systems wouldn't function properly or efficiently without couplings. They quietly go about their business of transferring motion from one drive element to the next. In the PT market today, couplings have the unique challenge of satisfying a variety of customer needs including tighter tolerances, higher speeds and a more versatile selection process.
The complete Product News section from the August 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Product News section from the April 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
a custom hydraulic brake system from Mico Inc. aid in the development of specialized material handling equipment.
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Sunnen grows product portfolio with motion control solution from Siemens.
Servo system from Bosch-Rexroth helps create more efficient beverage palletizer.
If youâ™re replacing your belts more than once per year, itâ™s time to analyze your drive. From belt crimping damage to high belt installation tension to sprocket misalignment and adverse environmental conditions, this guide walks you through how to identify the reasons behind premature failure and makes recommendations on corrective and preventive measures.
The complete product news section from the June 2009 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Entrust enlists Advanced Machine & Engineering for 7-axis, 2-spindle performance.
The Royal Danish Theatre has occupied the heart of Copenhagen for centuries and recently upgraded to a new control system featuring Sprint Electric DC drives to extend the lives of the existing motors, keeping replacement costs down. The Swedish stage design and technology company Visual Act retained most of the original motors and mechanics while providing a much-needed facelift to the stage.
Much of the industrial energy being consumed by systems is wasted through inefficiency. For this article, a system will be defined as the following components working together: electrical input power, variable frequency drives, induction motors, gearboxes and transmission elements (chains, belts, etc.).
One of the driving forces behind the industrial revolution was the inventionâ”more than a century agoâ”of the electric motor. Its widespread use for all kinds of mechanical motion has made life simpler and has ultimately aided the advancement of humankind. And the advent of the inverter that facilitated speed and torque control of AC motors has propelled the use of electric motors to new realms that were inconceivable just a mere 30 years ago. Advances in power semiconductorsâ”along with digital controlsâ”have enabled realization of motor drives that are robust and can control position and speed to a high degree of precision. The use of AC motor drives has also resulted in energy savings and improved system efficiency. This paper reviews the development and application of inverter technology to AC motor drives and presents a vision for motor drive technology.
The complete Product News section from the December 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
SPS-IPC Drives 2011, which took place in Nuremburg, Germany in November, covered all components down to complete systems and integrated solutions in the electric automation industry.
Given that many different hydraulic systems recommend the use of either frequency converters or cyclic control (soft starter technologies), the question must be asked - Which one of these solutions is the most cost-effective in reducing energy consumption and providing the most satisfactory payback time?
While safety functions have been integrated into drives packages for some years now, the current trends are very exciting, from many angles. Today, a full complement of safety functions can be implemented at the front-end of a system design on all types of production machines, including printing, packaging, converting, materials handling and other equipment used throughout American industry.
In this special news section, the editors of Power Transmission Engineering have gathered the latest product news and information from the gears and gear drives sector.
The complete Industry News section from the February 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering
The federal government estimates that manufacturing uses about one third of the energy consumed in the U.S., so manufacturing companies can play an important role in building a sustainable future.
One of our goals at Power Transmission Engineering is to help you understand, identify and select the best technology for your mechanical power transmission or motion control applications. With every project, you have to decide which components to use, and which suppliers, based on functionality, quality and price. We aim to help you make those decisions informed by providing the latest information on current technology, especially when it comes to mechanical components.
The complete Product News section from the September 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
News about the most recent products to hit the market.
I was invited by Tom Astrene of TLT to write a response to the July 2010 TLT article (Ref. 1). My rebuttal â” âœIn Search of a Fatigue Limit: A Critique of ISO Standard 281:2007â â” was published in Tribology and Lubrication Engineering, TLT, August 2010 edition (Ref. 10). While this article is also available online, I will attempt to summarize the essence of my response.
Rolling-element bearings are high-precision components that need to be stored and handled carefully to perform as designed. Proper storage and handling of a bearing before, during and after installation is important because once debris enters a bearing, it reduces the life.
Part 1: There seems to be a lot of confusion about the voltage standards for motors and why they are structured the way they are. Part 2: The effect of low voltage on electric motors is pretty widely known and understood, but the effect of high voltage on motors is frequently misunderstood.
The complete Industry News section from the September 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Product News section from the March 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Product News section from the October 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Our expert explores standard vs. optimized gears, as well as high contact ratio gearing.
Oil shear brake technology is the key to quick and reliable test stand development.
The complete Product News section from the December 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering, featuring the latest from SKF, R+W, Brecoflex, Nexen, GÃ¼del, Renold Gears, Hansford Sensors, Ogura Industrial, Igus, Destaco, RÃ¶hm and Iwis.
Compact loaders are employed where large machines have no access or are over dimensioned. New hydrostatic drives from ZF meet the demanding needs of this market.
News Items About Rack and Pinion Drives
1 New Rack and Pinion Drives from Atlanta Drive Systems (February 10, 2005)
Zero backlash standard rack & pinion drives that utilizing a split- and dual-pinion arrangement are now available from Atlanta Drive Syst...
2 Atlanta Drive Showcases Rack and Pinion Drives at IMTS (April 9, 2006)
Atlant Drive Systems, Inc. will showcase their expanded range of rack and pinion drives, consisting of both helical & straight (spur) too...