# Linear Motors

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When the need arises for linear motion or positioning, there are many choices. One can use an Acme screw, ball screw, rack & pinion, or belts. The cost of a linear motor solution is generally greater than a mechanical linear product, but when one needs highly accurate, repeatable, high-speed motion, then the answer may be a linear motor.

In today's highly competitive world, the better someone understands the advantages and benefits of direct drive technology, then the more they will have an advantage in machine building, giving them an edge over their competition.

Energy efficiency is for more than just motors. Here are some mechatronics companies making sure you get more bang for your buck when it comes to your power bill.

Motor technology thrives in aerospace/defense applications.

The complete Product News section from the June 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

DC motors possess linear relationships that allow for very predictable operation. For instance, if enough voltage is applied across the terminals of a DC motor, the output shaft will spin at a rate proportional to that applied voltage. You can take the ratio of the applied voltage over the rated voltage and multiply that number by the no load speed and get the running speed.

The complete Industry News section from the March 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

A machine called Sub1 Reloaded solved a Rubik's Cube in 637 thousandths of a second in Munich.

If there are two things that are in tight supply in the industry, it's time and talent. Manufacturers are always pressured to do more faster, and the industry is producing fewer experts to help them do it, so the industry's had to get crafty and find what time-cutting procedures they can.

This issue our Baldor Basics series continues with the topics of motor temperature ratings and metric motors.

How to Ensure Reliable Performance, Increased Efficiency and Lowest Total Cost of Ownership.

In the process of applying industrial drive products, we occasionally are misled into believing that we are applying horsepower. The real driving force is not horsepower - it is torque. This paper is developed to impart a deeper understanding of torque, its relationship to horsepower, and the types of loads we most frequently encounter.

The complete Product News section from the September 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

Amps, Watts, Power Factor and Efficiency; Approximate Load Data from Amperage Readings; Power Factor Correction on Single-Induction Motors.

Copper's continuing role in energy-efficient motor development.

Failure to specify the proper motor for use in a hazardous location can have serious consequences - lost production, extensive property damage, and even loss of human life. Selection of the proper motor requires an understanding of Underwriters Laboratories' (UL) and National Electrical Code (NEC) class, group and division designations and the T code letters.

Framo Morat and Dunkermotoren Produce Drive Systems for Automatic Guided Vehicles.

Conservation through lighting alterations using different bulbs, ballasts and light sources is well understood and easy to achieve. The use of improved efficiency three phase induction motors has not been as accepted. There are a number of reasons why conservation efforts with motors have not been as popular.

Gearmotor manufacturers find new ways to push the envelope. (With Sidebar on new alternative to planetary gearboxes)

This paper presents a joint project conducted by Ashwoods Electric Motors and Oerlikon Fairfield that uses planetary drives with an integrated electric motor. Current solutions used in production of off-highway vehicles rely upon large, heavy and inefficient brushed DC or induction motors, coupled to a planetary gearbox. This presents a number of challenges to the vehicle designers such as: limited vehicle range, limited space around the motor/drivetrain, and motor durability. The proposed integrated system utilizes an Oerlikon Fairfield Torque Hub, widely used in off-highway vehicles, and the Ashwoods first-to-market, interior permanent magnet motor. How these products are integrated, i.e. incorporating a brake solution, represents a market-changing product. Using interior permanent magnet (IPM) technology in the motor design means the motor can be up to 70% lighter, 70% smaller and 20% more efficient than traditional motors used in off-highway traction applications.

Faulhaber Provides Motor Technology for Pipe Renovation Projects

This is an article about motors - preventive motor maintenance, actually. And something else - mechatronics. In today's high-tech manufacturing and industrial use environments, it is near impossible to talk about equally complex motor maintenance and repair-or-replace protocols without it.

Part 1: There seems to be a lot of confusion about the voltage standards for motors and why they are structured the way they are. Part 2: The effect of low voltage on electric motors is pretty widely known and understood, but the effect of high voltage on motors is frequently misunderstood.

A good deal of confusion exists regarding the factors that determine an industrial electric bill. The following information is presented to help sort out the various items on which billing is based, and to offer suggestions on measures to help control and reduce electric utility bills.

Beginning with this initial installment , and with the gracious permission of ABB/Baldor Electric, we are pleased to announce the beginning of a new series -- Baldor Basics: Motors. This is a collection of basicsdriven, motor-intensive articles authored by former Baldor engineer Edward Cowern, PE, a respected name by many in the electric motor industry. During his tenure at Baldor, Cowern - now enjoying his retirement - was tasked with producing a number of motor- and basics-related tutorials, primarily in response to a steady flow of customer questions regarding motors. Today's customers continue to ask questions and seek answers to address their various motor-related issues. As with Cowern's original introduction to the series, we hope you find these articles useful and would appreciate any comments or thoughts you might have for future improvements, corrections or topics.

The secondhand on the Doomsday dial ominously spins around the face, slowly but ever so surely inching the motor industry towards its inevitable terminus:

Reducing losses and increasing profits by instituting a motor management plan is what this series of articles is all about. Here in Part I, we discuss how to create a motor inventory and establish repair-or-replace motor guidelines. Subsequent topics in this three-part series will address (Part II) motor failure policies and purchasing specifications, and (Part III) repair specifications and preventive and predictive maintenance, respectively.

News From the gear Industry

This issue we take a long, hard look at motor efficiency, and you should, too. After all, electric motors used in industrial settings are the single largest consumer of electricity in the United States. Upgrading your electric motors is not only good for the environment, but itâ™s also good for your bottom line. Sure, saving electricity lessens the burden on our countryâ™s energy infrastructure. But it also saves you money in the long run.

When talking about high-end machining or manufacturing applications that include direct-drive technology, one of the key advantages of utilizing this particular transmission method is its endurance. Because of the very nature of direct-drive motors they are able to operate at peak performance levels indefinitely â” without any kind of wear or aging â” as long as the motor isnâ™t pushed past its capacity. Unfortunately, because this isnâ™t a perfect world, unexpected things can happen which can cause the motor to overheat. Whether the heat source is due to a parameter being input incorrectly, or an unexpected external force causing more resistance than expected â” it is important to have certain forms of thermal protection in place. Since torque motors are built in such a way that they cannot be repaired and yet maintain their efficiency, it is vital to prevent any overheating â” thus precluding the need to purchase a new one.

How would you compare the efficiency and capabilities of hybrid stepper motor actuators vs. can stack stepper motor actuators?

One of the key challenges in the mining industry today is maintaining throughput in the face of ore grade quality that has declined by 40 percent in the last decade.

Over the past few decades, energy efficiency in motors has become an ever-increasing concern for OEMs and manufacturers alike. With multiple energy bills mandating higher efficiency across ever-broader spectrums of motors, including the most recent Small Motor Rule by the Department of Energy, efficiency has become an essential consideration when choosing a new motor.

Energy costs and downtime can be greatly reduced by instituting a motor management plan. Part II of this three-part series specifically addresses the establishment of a motor failure policy and the development of purchasing specifications. Part I addressed the general aspects of a motor management plan, including the first steps of creating a motor inventory and guidelines for motor repair and replacement. Part III will examine motor repair specifications as well as preventive and predictive maintenance.

U.S. manufacturers, such as food processors, face an unprecedented competitive environment and must look for ways to be profitable without negatively affecting the quality of finished products.

Increasing pressure on many fronts is compelling mine operators to thoroughly examine every phase of their operations. Fluctuating demand that whipsaws mineral prices, government-imposed environmental regulations and rising operating costs related to maintenance downtime all pose serious challenges for the mining sector. Add pressure from customers and stakeholders for more sustainable operations as well as union demands for higher wages, and you have a scenario that requires mine operators to exercise every possible option to achieve more efficient operations.

It's no secret that conveyor systems are the primary market for gearmotors, and so it shouldn't be much of a surprise that gearmotor manufacturers are looking for ways to cater to that market's needs. From Brother's new VFDs to Siemens' Simotics S-1FG1, a lot of the new solutions in the industry have their own unique quirks, but all fall into a few common veins.

If youâ™re an electrical engineer you know how an electric motor works; if you arenâ™t, it can be extremely confusing. Therefore, hereâ™s the simplified explanation (or the âœhow an electric motor works for dummiesâ version) of how a four-pole, three-phase AC induction motor works in a car.

Explosion-Proof Motors in Division 2 Areas and DC Drive Fundamentals

News about recent products in the Industry

This three-part series on motor management best practices focuses on the importance of instituting a motor management plan as a necessity in effectively administering the electric motors in a facility. The goal of a motor management plan is to take advantage of opportunities for energy savings and increased productivity using energy efficient, reliable motors such as NEMA Premium efficiency motors, herein referred to as âœpremium efficiencyâ motors.

Th e total U.S. electric motor base exceeds 100 million motors and consumes more than 50% of all electricity generated in the country. Small motorsâ”fractional horsepower to 20-hpâ”comprise 99% of the motor population but consume only 25% of all generated electricity (Refs. 1,3,10,14).

Without the sun, there would be no Earth and no life. However, our knowledge about our home star is still very limited. This is about to change. In 2018, the European Space Agency (ESA) will send its Solar Orbiter into space, equipped with a thick heat shield.

This issue we cover frame sizes and two-speed motors in our continuing series of articles, courtesy of Baldor Electric, dedicated to motor basics.

New servo drives, gear pumps, stepper motors and more.

Power Transmission component suppliers discuss COVID-19 Threat and how their companies are responding to keep the supply chain connected.

Condition Monitoring Technology Evolves for Gear Drives, Gearmotors and Gearboxes. Here's a look at what some leading manufacturers are offering.

Many industrial facilities with air-cooled heat exchangers (ACHE) and cooling towers often have older units installed. Depending on the age, repairs, and maintenance done over the years it may have had an impact on performance. Upon conducting site inspections of the equipment, it is sometimes found that ACHE or cooling tower components have degraded. This can result in a system that is not very energy-efficient and delivers substandard cooling performance.

This special advertising section features Motors manufacturers.

PTE Examines Gearmotor and Gear Drive Technology

This is the first of a series of articles on permanent magnet transverse magnetic flux motors - AKA step motors. These articles will be covering the development history and the various drive technologies used with these motors - both open and closed loop.

Intelligent drive technology in the cowshed

One of the fun parts of the motion industry is involvement in popular movies! Motor specifications can be a bit rough: "I need to spin a 120-pound actor (and chair) 180 degrees in one-half second. He will be sitting up-right."

New Opportunities and Technologies Allow AC Motors to Enhance Motion Control Applications.

Zach Rountree's life would be a lot easier if his job site was closer to town. As the owner and president of Rountree Construction, he oversees an operation that pulls 200 tons of material an hour out of a remote lake in Stockton, Georgia. Big equipment demands three-phase power, but out in the remote timberlands of rural Georgia, only single-phase power was available.

The transverse flux permanent magnet motor -- also known as a hybrid step motor or hybrid servo motor -- has a wide range of performances, depending upon how you drive these motors, and whether you operate them in open loop or one of the many variants of closed loop methods you use. In this third installment we will cover some of the many ways to drive these motors, as well as how these choices affect the performance of these motors.

Are you looking for one simple formula to help you choose between centralized and decentralized motor control? Unfortunately, such a formula does not exist. However, evaluating the overall size of the system, comparing labor and material costs, and maintaining flexibility can help guide engineers in the right direction.

On the tradeoffs between power density, efficiency and cost for high-performance, electric motors in choosing the most applicable technology for a specific application.

Helicopter Makes Maiden Voyage Across the Red Planet with Help from Maxon

How it impacts our industries.

A look at several Two-Phase Hybrid Step Motors and their dominant error sources, and comment on how the errors are overcome by true servo operation of these motors.

Motion control systems often combine high power drive signals in close proximity (or even within the same cable) with lower level signals, like encoders. You will often see ferrite beads added around cables; their effectiveness in minimizing noise is greatly affected by how they are deployed. This involves which signals are grouped, what are the drive characteristics, and how shielding and grounding are handled in the system.

Components like motors, bearings and drives are subject to harsh environments on Earth, but they must be at the top of their game to enjoy space travel. Recent applications from Maxon Motors (Return to Mars) and the University of Michigan (Robotic Legs) illustrate the incredible requirements it takes to handle applications in space and how these components can be utilized here on Earth.

Transverse magnetic flux motors -- also known as step motors -- become Hybrid Servos when you operate them closed loop. This is the same transformation that happens between running a 3-phase synchronous motor from line voltage as opposed to running it closed loop as a brushless servo. In the case of hybrid motors, there are many degrees of what is advertised as "closed loop," and thus significant differences in the performance improvements seen.

Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) simulation and research from published information is used to compare the features of various coil configurations.

These versatile, low-cost and high-torque motors may be used open loop or as full servos - and several levels in between. The motor stator laminate designs divide these motors into those optimized for full stepping, and those optimized for micro stepping and servo operation. These differences can be easily measured with basic meters and oscilloscopes. Motor to motor variations can also be easily measured, and motor inductance at nominal speed and current can also be determined.

Gearmotors handle harsh environments with digitalization, customization and improved service life.

Welcome to the Age of Information, where flexible, intelligent drive systems separate the haves from the have nots

Industrial mainstay adapts to remain relevant in a 4.0 world

Different motor types favor different application areas. No single style has advantages in all application spaces. Direct drive applications favor hybrid servos while high-speed, geared down applications tend to favor the conventional servo motors.

Most of us want to just instinctively squeeze a belt between a pair of pulleys to test the belt tension. What is not as instinctive is just how much force such a procedure can put on the shaft -- often significantly past the manufacturer's rated limits for small motors. This can cause damage to both the shaft and the bearings.

The skies are full of them in 2018 - drones flying around amusement parks, job sites and even your own backyard. There are drone racing leagues on ESPN, drones capturing wide angle shots over film locations and government drones keeping a bird's eye view on the Mexican/America border.

JBT Corporation benefits from Kollmorgen Hygienic motor design in food and beverage application.

Enhancing production with â” and for â” less is the standing order in todayâ™s manufacturing world. Speeding up production while at the same time looking for ways, to cut, for example, energy costs, is a tricky equation with no single answer; where and how management goes about achieving that can take several paths.

Elastic housing deformation by MESYS, plus new motors, actuators, gear drives and more.

Motor Operation Gets Big Boost from Smart Technology (Here's How to Take Advantage)

As manufacturers continually search for ways to cut costs and increase ROI, machine monitoring and predictive maintenance (PdM) solutions are an increasingly cost-effective way for plants and factories to help reduce process downtime.

Automate Show Examines the Integration of Robotics, Automation and Machine Vision, while Promat explores the latest in material handling technology.

Faulhaber motors help seek climate answers in deep-sea trenches

Special advertising section from the October 2019 issue of Gear Technology.

Lower-cost motor technologies exist that can be an attractive alternative to neo-based BL PM motors - and are not subject to unpredictable supply chains

The following article explains the commonly used paint components and methods within the gearmotor industry, with a focus on electrodeposition coating (E-Coat). These processes will be described in general, with a closer examination of the E-Coat applications steps. Some pros and cons of each method will be presented along with comparative test results showing the benefits of E-Coat.

In Part I we explored various motor technologies used today for industrial and traction motor design. Here in Part II we will explore another motor option: reluctance motors.

Standing in a factory or a warehouse, you're bound to notice machinery, whether it's a conveyor system that winds across the floor or large fans that hang from the ceiling. You may even notice automated guided vehicles or autonomous mobile robots carrying parts, driving themselves from one section of the building to another. These machines are good candidates for using high-efficiency gearmotors, especially if they're expected to run for long stretches at a time. If they aren't using high-efficiency gearmotors, then they may be costing more money than they should.

In the late 1940s, the U.S. auto industry started an exciting experiment and spent decades on it. One result came in '63, when the Turbine was introduced by Chrysler Corp., now a part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA). In appearance, the two-door, four-passenger car looked like a regular car, but it wasnââ‚¬â„¢t. Under its sleek shell, the car had a jet engine.

Yes, the headline is correct: Autonomous vehicles are not a new idea. In fact, in the 1950s, handsfree driving so interested General Motors engineers that they designed a concept car for it. And in 1956, at its own auto show, the GM Motorama, the automaker unveiled the car, the Firebird II.

Efficiency, Size, Space and Mounting Requirements Highlight Customer Requests for No Compromise.

Modern aircraft, missiles and space vehicles employ a large number of electric motors and actuators. While the basic design of these motors is in many respects very similar to that of their automotive and industrial counterparts, motors for aerospace applications differ significantly in some areas.

The complete Industry News section from the March 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

John Morehead, national sales manager of Crouzet Motors (Vista, CA), was bunkered down in his office in Palatine, IL surrounded at all points by ankle-deep snow from an unfortunately terrible Chicagoâ™s winter night.

The complete Product News section from the October 2021 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

Linear guide systems are perhaps the most diverse group of products in the motion control industry. Here's how to pick the best one for your application.

The complete Product News section from the December 2021 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

The federal government estimates that manufacturing uses about one third of the energy consumed in the U.S., so manufacturing companies can play an important role in building a sustainable future.

Key advantages of linear motion components in aerospace applications.

Bosch Rexroth began developing linear bushings, shafts, slides, and transfer tables as prototypes in the 1960s. The first two complete linear modules with linear guides in combination with a ball screw assembly and toothed belt drive as a ready-to-install subsystem were launched in 1990 -- a quantum leap in the linear axes range which had previously been dominated by components.

When designers and integrators need simple, flexible and compact linear actuation, they often turn to stepper motor linear actuators (SMLAs). The high configurability of SMLAs is among their greatest virtues, but sorting through myriad configuration options to tailor the optimal solution for a particular application can be a challenge for even the most seasoned motion engineer.

103 The Power Shift (June 2021)

Companies look to fuel economy, energy efficiency and operating costs to improve off-highway applications.

Fully integrated linear modules can be versatile and cost-effective for linear transport applications in packaging machinery.

The purpose of DC motor protection is to extend a motor's lifespan by protecting it from conditions that can damage the motor's windings--both electrically and mechanically.

KD-Rig Puts Accelerating Developments International in Limelight

Few industries are experiencing change quite as fast as the packaging arena. Lighter-weight containers are being introduced to reduce costs and energy use, packaging is being redesigned to attract consumer attention and manufacturers are using fewer materials in an effort to address environmental concerns.

The demand for stepping motors with high efficiency and low losses has been increasing, although the demand had been previously focused on high torque. Also, the selection of the most suitable grade of lamination for improvement in fastening of the laminated cores has reduced losses significantly at their peak, when compared to conventional stepping motors. Lowering the losses of the motor has enabled continuous operation that was previously impossible. An expansion of the stepping motorâ™s usage into applications where another motor has been used for continuous operation and other usesâ”due to the heat generation problemâ”can now be pursued. In addition, these motors are very effective for energy saving. This paper explains the technology used for lowering the iron losses of the stepping motor.

The Royal Danish Theatre has occupied the heart of Copenhagen for centuries and recently upgraded to a new control system featuring Sprint Electric DC drives to extend the lives of the existing motors, keeping replacement costs down. The Swedish stage design and technology company Visual Act retained most of the original motors and mechanics while providing a much-needed facelift to the stage.

Sunnen grows product portfolio with motion control solution from Siemens.

In this paper, Edward Hage, founder of specAmotor.com, an online motor calculation and selection tool, focuses on the overheating of electric motors. Presented here is a calculation method with which the temperature and heat development of a direct current (DC) motor and a brushless motor can be predicted accurately.

Can direct drive technology improve your bottom line? Manufacturers relying upon drive systems in their production process have long sought ways to improve gearbox efficiency. While a gearbox-driven system has been the mainstay for manufacturers, it has also been, among other things, the source of frequent breakdowns, expensive line stoppages and increasingly costly maintenance.

The repair-versus-replace decision is quite complicated, depending upon variables such as rewind cost, severity of the failure, replacement motor purchase price and other factors.

OEMs can minimize the cost of ownership by using highly efficient motors and recognizing when unreliable motors are driving up the operating costs of their applications.

CEE/NEMA repair-or-replace campaign saves energy, dollars and downtime.

Digitalization is increasingly transforming mechanical engineering and manufacturing technologies, bringing with it not only unparalleled control and flexibility over production systems but so much more.

The following article is a round-up of the latest linear motion product and industry news items featured at www.powertransmission.com and on social media.

The ball screw drive is an assembly that converts rotary motion to linear motion and vice versa. The ball screw drive consists of a ball screw and a ball nut with recirculating ball bearings...

Smart actuators bring big benefits to utility and other off-highway vehicles

This article describes a series of tests that can be performed by the average user, with little experience, and without sophisticated measuring instruments, to quickly determine the most important performance characteristics of linear motion systems.

122 Product News (June 2012)

The complete Product News section from the June 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

How to select a guide wheel with the properties best-suited for a given application to create a system that reduces design costs and engineering changes, and lowers warranty, assembly, installation and mounting costs.

Companies focus on customization and quality in linear motion

Ball screw assemblies are key to this patent-pending oilfield corrosion prevention solution.

This Q&A session with various experts at Thomson Linear Systems covers linear slides & stages, clutches & brakes, bearings and actuators.

127 Product News (October 2010)

The complete Product News section from the October 2010 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

News from the industry about new products.

News from around the industry.

Improving System Performance One Application at a Time. PTE recently caught up with IKO, Rollon and THK to breakdown the basics in linear motion rolling guides.

The Swiss Army Knife of PT Components.

Electromechanical rodless linear actuators can offer better load handling in smaller spaces than rod-style actuators, but realizing those benefits requires careful attention at the specification level. Whether you are replacing a failed actuator, looking for better performance or building a new application from the ground up, success depends on how precisely you specify application requirements.

When it comes to specifying linear motion within a machine, system designers have many options from which to choose. Making the right choice can impact the ease of installation, footprint and cost of operation.

Here's what one supplier is doing to take advantage of the mobile phone in your pocket.

Automated production of large objects such as auto body prototypes, boat hulls and surfboards traditionally requires computerized numerical control (CNC) systems costing nearly a million dollars. Thomson Cuts Costs and Production Time for Autoscale Inc.

136 INDUSTRY NEWS (March 2015)

News From the Industry

137 Product News (April 2015)

Latest Products

138 Product News (March 2017)

The complete Product News section from the March 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

An exploration of direct drive motor trends and examples of design uses for direct drives as replacements for gear drives or belt drives.

motors with premium efficiency counterparts presents businesses with a significant opportunity to reduce operating costs. A comparison between premium and standard efficiency motors from 0.25 to 10 horsepower is conducted; comparisons of full-load efficiencies are shown, and estimated payback periods are calculated. Methods for calculating the yearly kilowatt-hour consumption and yearly cost savings of premium efficiency motors for this horsepower range are also given. The cost advantages of premium efficiency motors are summarized, and relevant examples of real world cost savings are shown.

There are more brushless PM motors being made every day. These brushless PM motors are smaller in size -- i.e., less than 50 watts in power output found in hard-disk drives, CD and DVD players and many portable medical devices. Servo systems with brushless PM motors ranging from 50 watts to 50 kilowatts are now challenging the larger electric motor applications. A few manufacturers have pushed brushless PM motors above 200 kW.

This product focus highlights the latest technology in electric motors.

143 The Step Motor (April 2014)

Step motors come in many sizes and shapes. But they all share one item in common - each step motor type moves in discrete-degree steps. They react to a series of voltage pulses supplied by their basic controller, known as an "indexer." The step motor was the first to accept digital pulses, then move or rotate a prescribed amount without any feedback device. All step motors are position devices without the need to use any feedback devices. They operate primarily in an open-loop control scheme.

When I woke up this morning, my house was a comfortable 68Â°F, despite the fact that overnight temperatures in the Chicago area were close to freezing. I donâ™t often think about the blower motor that helps circulate the warm air from my furnace throughout my house, but today I was grateful for it...

Recently I had a disturbing conversation with a colleague here at the office. During the conversation, it became clear to me that my co-worker -- a really intelligent guy whom I respect a lot -- had no idea how even the most simple electric motor works.

A brief overview of the induction motor, including the basics of construction, performance and variable speed drives.

Everything started in 1800 when Volta developed the first DC battery. Faraday used the DC battery to develop the first electric motor. It used brushes to transfer the battery voltage and current to the rotating disk rotor. This was in mid-1831. Thus was born the brush DC motor.

A discussion of the basics in DC drives, DC motors, AC drives, AC motors and synchronous motors.

149 PT Extras (December 2013)

Video from Maxon Motors, Hannover Messe on our LinkedIn page and the NFPA annual conference on our Facebook page.

The complete Product News section from the December 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

There are three major types of reluctance motors: all three reluctance motors are non-permanent magnet, brushless motors. They are synchronous motors with a non-linear relationship between torque and current. The variable-reluctance step and switched-reluctance motors utilize the principle of magnetic attraction by inducing magnet poles within the soft-iron rotor, and by energizing a set of coils wound around stator teeth resident in the laminated stator. These two reluctance motors must be sequentially excited to achieve continuous, steady-state rotation. The design of all reluctance motors requires finite element analysis (FEA) software.

152 Industry News (August 2014)

The complete Industry News section from the August 2014 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

A wide variety of companies displayed mechanical power transmission and motion control technologies at Pack Expo, held in November in Chicago. The event, which is the largest packaging and processing trade show in North America, attracted more than 48,000 attendees, according to show owner and producer PMMI. The four-day event included 2,352 exhibiting companies, an increase of more than 19 percent from the previous show in 2012.

The motors might be small, but the big-brain technology driving these electrical wonders was on full display at the 2014 Small Motor & Motion Association Fall Technical Conference, convened November 4-6 in St. Louis, MO. SMMA, the manufacturing trade association (120 members strong) that tends to the best interests of the electric motor and motion control industries â” including manufacturers, suppliers, users, consultants and universities â” played gracious host to a wide array of presenters from an equally diverse range of sources â” from academia to the federal government. Like gears, motors are most everywhere, as evidenced by SMMAâ™s membership (consumer-, public interest-, national defense- and commercial-oriented) demographic which includes: appliance; transportation; medical equipment; office automation and computers; aerospace; and industrial automation. The associationâ™s mission: To âœserve as the principal voice of the electric motors and drives industryâ and to provide a forum to âœdevelop, collect and disseminate technical and management knowledge.â

The use of motor current signature analysis (MCSA) for motor fault detection â” such as a broken rotor bar â” is now well established. However, detection of mechanical faults related to the driven system remains a more challenging task. Recently there has been a growing interest for detection of gear faults by MCSA. Advantages and drawbacks of these MCSA-type techniques are presented and discussed on a few industrial cases.

Hi. My name is Renee. Iâ™m 12. You might remember me from about a year ago, when my dad wrote about me and the home-made motor project we did together (âœMake the Connection,â February 2014).

According to the Department of Energy (DOE), more than half of all electrical energy consumed in the U.S. is used by electric motors. To address this, several years ago, the DOE conducted a technical study as to what could be done to raise the efficiency levels of âœsmallâ motors. After years of study and litigation, the Small Motor Rule (SMR) was passed that covers two-digit NEMA frame single- and three-phase ¼ through 3 horsepower motors in open enclosures.

If you read only one article this issue, it should be Norm Parkerâ™s article on the Chinese bearing manufacturing industry. Parker is an engineer with General Motors, a true industry insider who has become a regular contributor to Power Transmission Engineering.

The Formula Renault 3.5 is seen as a crucial stepping stone on the way into the premier class, the Formula 1. Ambitious racers do not just bring their talents - they also have highly efficient motors on board to control the throttle of their 530-hp V8 engines.

University lab's motor eliminates pricey rare-earth magnets.

Electric motor-driven systems are the single largest enduser of electricity, accounting for over 40% of global consumption according to the International Energy Agency.

Power Transmission Components from Forest City Gear, Kaydon Bearings and Maxon Motors help power NASA's Curiosity Mars Rover.

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software can be used for a variety of mechanical engineering tasks, including injection molding simulation of plastic parts, analysis of aerospace components, impact and crash analysis of automobiles and the electromagnetic analysis of motors, actuators, transformers and sensors.

Maxon upgrades tissue removal system for Interlace.

During the qualification campaign of the NIRSpec (near-infrared spectrometer) instrument mechanism, the actuator could not achieve the expected lifetime that had been extended during the development phase. The initial design could not be adapted to the requested number of revolutions during that phase. Consequently the actuator needed to be modified so that the function of the mechanism would not be endangered or, by extension, the overall function of the NIRSpec instrument. The modification included a change of the overall actuator designâ”internal dimensions, tolerances, materials, lubrication and assembly processâ”while keeping the interface to the mechanism, mass and function.

While safety functions have been integrated into drives packages for some years now, the current trends are very exciting, from many angles. Today, a full complement of safety functions can be implemented at the front-end of a system design on all types of production machines, including printing, packaging, converting, materials handling and other equipment used throughout American industry.

The Baldor Reliance RPM AC Cooling Tower Direct Drive Motor is designed exclusively for the cooling tower industry. This motor combines the technologies of the power-dense, laminated frame RPM AC motor with high performance, permanent magnet salient pole rotor designs.

One of the driving forces behind the industrial revolution was the inventionâ”more than a century agoâ”of the electric motor. Its widespread use for all kinds of mechanical motion has made life simpler and has ultimately aided the advancement of humankind. And the advent of the inverter that facilitated speed and torque control of AC motors has propelled the use of electric motors to new realms that were inconceivable just a mere 30 years ago. Advances in power semiconductorsâ”along with digital controlsâ”have enabled realization of motor drives that are robust and can control position and speed to a high degree of precision. The use of AC motor drives has also resulted in energy savings and improved system efficiency. This paper reviews the development and application of inverter technology to AC motor drives and presents a vision for motor drive technology.

The latest offering by machine design experts J.R. Hendershot and T.J.E. Miller is an 822-page brushless permanent-magnet (PM) machine design book that serves as a worthy follow-up to their 1994 work.

In keeping with a national push to bring greater energy efficiency to wastewater treatment plants, a Pennsylvania facility used data loggers to analyze motor utilization, a first step toward cutting energy costs and meeting environmental rules.

The SMMA â“ Motor and Motion Association is ditching the slickers and galoshes for this yearâ™s Spring Management Conference, themed âœAfter the Storm: Navigating in the New World.â

Permanent-magnet, synchronous-torque motors offer significant advantages on high-energy-consuming and high-dynamic applications.

The latest in motors technology from leading manufacturers.

Q&A with Harald Poesch, product marketing manager for servomotors at Siemens Drive Technologies.

A new preventive maintenance program at a leading New England Ivy League university demonstrates how the push for more sustainable "green" building management has led to a growing awareness of a chronic, widespread problem with HVAC motors&mdash;electrical bearing damage and failure.

The use of motor structures which can concentrate magnetic flux allows ferrite PM motors to achieve performance and power densities that approach those of PM motors using rare earth magnets, but without the cost penalties and supply source concerns of rare earth magnets.

Fairchild International, a U.S.-based manufacturer of underground mining equipment, has produced battery-powered DC scoops since the early 1980s. With 17 different models available, Fairchild offers a size to fit any coal mining operation, making it the leader in the industry.

Defined in rudimentary terms, an electric motor is a device that uses electricity to create mechanical force. But in 1834, when our story takes place, most people would have trouble understanding the ramifications. That was the year that one of the earliest DC electric motors was invented&mdash;by a blacksmith.

Novatorque energy efficient motors, Portescap smaller-size brushless DC motors, Pittman customized motors, Kollmorgen stainless steel motors, Crouzet expanded motor series, and a report from IHS on rare earth mineral supply.

The demand for stepping motors with high efficiency and low losses has been increasing right along with the existing focus on high torque. The selection of the most suitable grade and improvement in the fastening of the laminated cores has reduced losses significantly at their peak when compared to conventional stepping motors.

A new solution has been developed around the use of microprocessor-controlled prostheses. Just like natural limbs, these can react automatically, adapting to the current situation.

Given that many different hydraulic systems recommend the use of either frequency converters or cyclic control (soft starter technologies), the question must be asked - Which one of these solutions is the most cost-effective in reducing energy consumption and providing the most satisfactory payback time?

Synchronous motors controlled by variable speed drives are bringing higher efficiencies to industrial applications.

Rosetta Mission mixes with Maxon, Kim K for one unforgettable photo

## News Items About Linear Motors

1 Philips Develops Innovations in Standard Linear Motors (November 20, 2007)
Philips Applied Technologies recently developed a technique allowing standard linear motors to simultaneously provide movement along two ...

2 New Linear Motors from Aerotech (March 2, 2005)
The BLMFS5 Series flat linear motors from Aerotech provide 25% more power in an equivalent envelope than traditional models.This is achie...

3 Rexroth Offers Ironless Linear Motors Line (July 13, 2011)
The new ironless linear motors by Rexroth position small masses with precision and maximum synchronization. Not only are the motors in th...

4 Dunkermotor Releases Linear Motors and Actuators Catalog (October 2, 2012)
Dunkermotor, now part of Ametek Precision Motion Control, has released its first ServoTube linear motors and actuators catalog with techn...

5 Celera Motion Javelin Linear Motors Offers Easy Integration, High Acceleration (January 4, 2016)
Designed for easy integration into OEM assemblies, the Applimotion Javelin Series linear motors are offered in a wide range of low-profil...

6 H2W Now Manufacturing Brushless Linear Motors (January 22, 2015)
With the recent acquisition of the Baldor linear motion product line, H2W Technologies has begun manufacturing brushless linear motors in...

7 Moticont Adds Two Linear Motors to SDLM Series (February 14, 2017)
Moticont has added two linear motors to its SDLM series of high speed direct drive linear motors which are also known as electric cylinde...