Articles About Gearboxes
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Gearboxes are important assemblies within mechatronic systems. During the design phase of such systems it is essential to know the gearbox behavior under consideration of dynamic interactions with its environment. Holistic system simulation helps the engineer to understand this and to improve, adjust, or optimize gearboxes and their application.
Wind turbine gearboxes are subjected to a wide variety of operating conditions, some of which may push the bearings beyond their limits. Damage may be done to the bearings, resulting in a specific premature failure mode known as white etching cracks (WEC), sometimes called brittle, short-life, early, abnormal or white structured flaking (WSF). Measures to make the bearings more robust in these operating conditions are discussed in this article.
In order to analyze the different gear oils suitable for the lubrication of wind turbine gearboxes, five fully formulated ISO VG 320 gear oils were selected. In between the selected gear oils, four PAO base oils can be found: PAOR, PAOM, PAOC and PAOX. A mineral-based oil (MINR) was also included as reference.
The growth of worldwide energy consumption and emerging industrial markets demands an increase of renewable energy shares. The price pressure coming from coal, oil, nuclear and natural gas energy - combined with enormous worldwide production capacities for components of wind turbines - make wind energy a highly competitive market. The testing and validation of gearboxes within the test rig and the turbine environment attract a strong focus to the needs of the industry. The following contribution sums up the typical process requirements and provides examples for successful system and component verifications based on field measurements.
In recent years the estimation of gearbox power loss is attracting more interest â” especially in the wind turbine and automotive gearbox industry â” but also in industrial gearboxes where heat dissipation is a consideration as well. As new transmissions concepts are being researched to meet both ecological and commercial demands, a quick and reliable estimation of overall efficiency becomes inevitable in designing the optimal gearbox.
A critical problem for wind turbine gearboxes is failure of rolling element bearings where axial cracks form on the inner rings. This article presents field experience from operating wind turbines that compares the performance of through-hardened and carburized materials. It reveals that through-hardened bearings develop WEA/WECs and fail with axial cracks, whereas carburized bearings do not. The field experience further shows that a carburized bearing with a core having low carbon content, high nickel content, greater compressive residual stresses, and a higher amount of retained austenite provides higher fracture resistance and makes carburized bearings more durable than through-hardened bearings in the wind turbine environment.
With the increasing mechanical power capacity of gearboxes, the thermal power limit tends to become the limiting factor. To achieve a balanced system, the gear unit needs extra cooling. Using a fan that is mounted to a fast rotating shaft is a common solution. For this solution an optimal design is investigated.
Dave Soma, the mechanical supervisor at Leland Olds Station, a coal-fired power plant near Stanton, North Dakota, says he and his maintenance team care deeply about keeping the plant running and providing people electricity, especially in the dead of winter.
Standardized calculation methods such as ISO 6336 and DIN 3990 already exist to determine the load distributions on gears inside a planetary gearbox, but by their very universal nature, these methods offer varying results depending on the gearbox design. Double helical gears, in particular, can benefit from more specific, complex algorithms to reach a maximum level of efficiency. Double helical gears interact with the rest of the gearbox differently than helical or spur gears, and thus benefit from different analytical models outside the standardized methods. The present research project describes the algorithm to determine the load distribution of planetary gearboxes with double helical gears.
Condition Monitoring Technology Evolves for Gear Drives, Gearmotors and Gearboxes. Here's a look at what some leading manufacturers are offering.
How one gearbox manufacturer took an existing design and transformed it to meet the needs of this demanding environment.
Worm, bevel, and parallel shaft gear units were installed at two breweries to provide the necessary process control.
The proof of the reliability of a gear drive is now an additional requirement. In Europe, the acceptance authorities for wind turbines are requesting a system reliability proof from gearbox manufacturers. The AGMA committee reviewing the AGMA 6006 standard for wind turbines is considering adding a chapter about design for reliability. However, reliability considerations are not new; NASA, for example, was in the 1980s using reliability concepts for gear drives.
With today's smaller, hotter - and overloaded - machinery, specifying the correct lubricant is vital.
In the general context of the reduction of energy consumption and polluting emissions, gearbox efficiency has become a major issue.
PTE Examines Gearmotor and Gear Drive Technology
The presented method offers a possibility or the quantitative evaluation of the operational behavior of integrated transmission systems.
Bearing subsystem life and reliability explained.
Research has shown that the phasing of the planets in an epicyclic system can have a significant impact on the dynamic characteristics of the gearbox.
Options available for those looking for safe, online/in-person gear knowledge.
Rolls-Royce is pioneering the UltraFan engine family architecture containing a planetary gearbox in a power range of 15 to 80 megawatts. To increase the efficiency of the UltraFan, a planetary gearbox is introduced between fan and intermediate pressure compressor. This enables running the turbine to rotate faster and allows a reduced fan speed.
Prototype and Process Development Ensuring Stable Quality at the Highest Level
Schaeffler Touts System Solutions and Electrification Advancements at Detroit Symposium
In this paper, the models for different power loss sources in transmissions from literature are applied and compared, which form the two methods - ISO 14179-2 and the joint model to estimate the power losses in a transmission. A 2-speed transmission in an electric vehicle is used as a case study to compare the two methods and validate them with experimental data.
In this study, a finite volume CFD simulation model of a single-stage injection-lubricated test gearbox was applied to investigate its oil flow and no-load power loss. The results provide physically plausible information on the oil supply and its distribution.
Our product focus includes the latest technology in gears and gear drives from the leading manufacturers.
In most applications, gearbox reliability is critical to the productivity of the overall plant operation. So it follows that when industry is looking at the best ways to increase efficiency, reduce downtime, and increase profitability, gearbox performance and reliability are key factors. Designing for repair, and writing effective repair procedures, can speed the service time, and provide a quality refurbishment. The best practices listed in this article are proven, effective methods used to install and remove bearings, seals, gears, couplings and shafts within a gearbox.
The chemical and physical properties of gear oils may change, depending - more or less - upon their formulation and the environmental conditions under which they are used. This is why - after three years of use in a wind turbine - a gear oil was examined to determine if indeed changes were evident and if the protection of the gears and rolling bearings still met the same requirements as would be expected of fresh oil. Our findings revealed that the existing gear oil - as well as its ability to protect the gears and rolling bearings - had degraded very little compared to fresh oil.
The availability of high-strength shaft materials, in combination with bearings with high carrying capacity, allows use of slimmer shafts. However, the modulus of elasticity remains the same, so seat design for bearings and gears must be given close attention.
Volatile aerospace market keeps gear manufacturers guessing.
Approximately one quarter of all servo motors around the world require some type of gear reduction in their applications. From large satellite dishes to precision medical devices, gearboxes boost torque and reduce speed for servos in order for them to be sized more efficiently. While gearbox fundamentals haven't changed much over the past 20 years, their effectiveness has improved significantly, driven mostly by the need to accommodate advancements in servo technology.
Th e signing of a contract for more than 5,000 sets of SKFâ™s latest high-capacity cylindrical roller bearings (HCCRB) for wind turbines will impart added load-carrying capacity, more reliability and longer life to the Nanjing Gear Companyâ™s (NGC) line of gearboxes for wind generation applications.
Engineers typically learn that the bearing L10 life can be estimated using the so called âœC/P methodâ â” or the âœbasic rating lifeâ of the bearing, a method rooted in the 1940s. Major developments have since led to the âœmodified rating life,â released in ISO 281:2007, which includes the aiso life modification factor. In this paper a succession of equations used for bearing life ratings are reviewed, and current bearing life rating practices are discussed in detail. It is shown that â” despite the introduction more than 30 years ago of the adjustment factor of the basic rating life, and the standardization in 2007 of the aiso modification factor â” use of these improved calculation methods are not practiced by all engineers. Indeed â” many continue referring to the old model as a way of seeking compliance with existing, established practices.
The improvement of the energy efficiency of industrial gear motors and gearboxes is a common problem for many gear unit manufacturers and end-users. As is typical of other mechanical components, the radial lip seals used in such units generate friction and heat, thus contributing to energy losses of mechanical systems. There exist today simulation tools that are already helping improve the efficiency of mechanical systems â” but accurate models for seal frictional losses need to be developed. In this paper SKF presents an engineering model for radial lip seal friction based on a physical approach.
For the lubrication of open gear drives used in different industrial applications such as cement and coal mills, rotary furnaces, or where the sealing conditions are difficult, semi-fluid greases are often used in preference to fluid oils. For girth gear applications the greases are used with a splash or spray lubrication system. The selection of such greases influences pitting lifetime and the load-carrying capacity of the gears, as well as wear behavior
Modern drivetrains with voltage-source inverters not only offer advantages like, for example, variable speed operation, increased efficiency and higher dynamics, but also an increase in failures caused by induced parasitic currents.
Gear drives focus on longevity, quality and customization.
The performance of high-speed helical geartrains is of particular importance for tiltrotor aircraft drive systems. These drive systems are used to provide speed reduction/torque multiplication from the gas turbine output shaft and provide the necessary offset between these parallel shafts in the aircraft. Four different design configurations have been tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center, High-Speed Helical Geartrain Test Facility. The design configurations included the current aircraft design, current design with isotropic superfinished gear surfaces, double-helical design (inward and outward pumping), increased pitch (finer teeth), and an increased helix angle. All designs were tested at multiple input shaft speeds (up to 15,000 rpm) and applied power (up to 5,000 hp). Also two lubrication, system-related, variables were tested: oil inlet temperature (160â“250° F) and lubricating jet pressure (60â“80 psig). Experimental data recorded from these tests included power loss of the helical system under study, the temperature increase of the lubricant from inlet to outlet of the drive system and fling-off temperatures (radially and axially). Also, all gear systems were tested with and without shrouds around the gears.
Gearing is an essential component in conveyors. The material handling industry appears divided between those who favor high-end three-stage helical bevel gearboxes and those who rely on less expensive worm gearing. But thereâ™s an often over-looked alternative, the two-stage helical bevel gearbox.
The U.S. Space Shuttle fleet was originally intended to have a life of 100 flights for each vehicle, lasting over a 10-year period, with minimal scheduled maintenance or inspection. The first space shuttle flight was that of the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102), launched April 12, 1981. The disaster that destroyed Columbia occurred on its 28th flight, February 1, 2003, nearly 22 years after its first launch.
As gear efficiency is improved in small steps, it is important to be able to distinguish actual improvements from scatter that can occur while testing. An FZG back-to-back gear test rig was used to investigate how the assembly and re-assembly of the same test setup affects the measurements. A spread in torque loss between one assembly and another of the same test setup were observed. Rig conditions also affected the spread in input torque. With knowledge of how the spread in torque loss varies due to assembly, test results could be distinguished between changes due to assembly and actual differences between tests.
Consideration of dynamic excitation effects in the gear design of two-stage gearboxes for e-mobility.
Mean Time Between Failures is a very frequent and broadly used reliability measure of components, systems and devices used mainly in conjunction with electrical and electronic equipment.
Gearmotor manufacturers find new ways to push the envelope. (With Sidebar on new alternative to planetary gearboxes)
Equipment downtime and reduced component life are a few of the consequences â” and potential costs â” of using the wrong seals on many types of industrial equipment including pump bearing frames, electric motors, fans, pillow blocks, gearboxes and more. However, if correctly specified and installed, seals provide effective barriers that both retain lubricants as well as protect against water, corrosion, debris and other contaminants.
Harsh environments and saltwater properties tend to make it difficult for motors, gearboxes and engines to perform consistently at a high level.
Thrust cone bearings are an elegant option to handle the axial forces generated by the torque transmission in helical-toothed gear stages. They have proven as an efficient and reliable bearing concept for integrally geared compressors but are nearly unknown in other fields of gearbox engineering. The presented investigations consider three aspects which appear relevant to extend the field of possible applications for thrust cones towards gearboxes constructed with roller bearings.
Why gearboxes rate as one of the highest-type maintenance components.
Manufacturers are awesome. Over the past month, we've talked to a lot of manufacturers of gears, bearings, motors, gearboxes, couplings and other mechanical power transmission components. Despite the challenges brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic and the current economic crisis, they've been universally positive and remarkably confident about their current operations and ability to continue through the crisis and after.
Where to find the gearboxes, bearings, couplings and other components.
conveying system on the varnishing line for a manufacturer of high-end kitchen cabinets were leaking. Oil was dripping on the cabinet parts â” ruining the finish. Why were half of the gearboxes leaking?
The world of high horsepower drives often calls for mechanical design to be approached from different perspectives. As motors, gearboxes and machines increase in size, power density can become disproportionate from one driveline component to the next, emphasizing the need for more rugged, robust and compact equipment.
Much of the industrial energy being consumed by systems is wasted through inefficiency. For this article, a system will be defined as the following components working together: electrical input power, variable frequency drives, induction motors, gearboxes and transmission elements (chains, belts, etc.).
Upgrading to gearboxes with helical gearing can save on energy, maintenance and landfill space.
In recent years, gearbox technology has advanced and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have specified required gear oils to meet the lubrication requirements of these new designs. Modern gearboxes operate under severe conditions while maintaining their reliability to ensure end-user productivity. The latest generation of industrial gear lubricants can provide enhanced performanceâ”even under extreme operating conditionsâ”for optimal reliability and reduced cost of operation.
Involute splines are commonly used in gearboxes to connect gears and shafts, especially when high torque is transmitted through the coupling. The load is shared among multiple teeth around the coupling circumference, resulting in higher load capacity than a conventional single key. However, the total load is not equally shared among all spline teeth, mainly because of pitch deviations resulting from the manufacturing process. The load distribution along the spline engagement length is also nonuniform because of tooth misalignments and shaft torsional effects. This paper presents an investigation of the influence of spur gear loads on the load distribution of spline teeth.
This article is designed to help describe the selection process of a reducer to be used in the parcel handling industry. It will go over the different applications for which gearboxes are used throughout parcel handling facilities such as UPS, FedEx and DHL.
Wind is the talk of the town. It has become especially relevant to the power transmission community where bearings, gears, couplings, motors and gearboxes are providing the equipment for this thriving alternative energy industry. It comes as no surprise that the Windpower 2009 Conference and Exhibition, arriving in Chicago from May 4â“7, will be the largest gathering of wind energy professionals and technologies to date.
News Items About Gearboxes
1 Bosch Rexroth Optimizes Wind Turbine Gearboxes (August 27, 2012)
The competitive pressure as well as the pricing pressure in the wind energy industry is mounting. If the sector wants to continue to expa...
2 Wittenstein Welcomes New Generation of Inline Gearboxes (April 30, 2012)
Experience the faces of a new generation of gearboxes with the LP+ Generation 3 from Wittenstein. This new precision gearhead sets new st...
3 ZF Opens First U.S. Plant for Wind Turbine Gearboxes (October 4, 2011)
ZF Friedrichshafen AG has opened a plant for the production of wind turbine gearboxes in Gainesville near Atlanta, Georgia. As of 2012, t...
4 Groschopp Releases New i-series Planetary Gearboxes (May 6, 2013)
Available in three sizes and multiple gear ratios, Groschopp’s new i-series gearboxes are suitable for applications that have strin...
5 AutomationDirect Offers Stepper Gearboxes (February 12, 2014)
AutomationDirect’s new SureGear PGCN series of stepper gearboxes is a suitable choice for stepper and other motion control applicat...
6 GWJ Technology Launches New Version of System Calculation for Gearboxes (March 2, 2015)
GWJ Technology GmbH, a manufacturer of calculation software for machine elements and gears, recently launched a new version of its system...
7 NKE Offers Rolling Bearings for Gearboxes (June 10, 2014)
NKE Austria offers rolling bearings for industrial gearboxes that meet the efficiency and reliability requirements of a wide range of sectors, such as general machinery, mining, material handling systems and heavy machinery...
8 Gearboxes Offer Range of Drive Requirements (May 6, 2011)
A line of totally sealed, precision right angle gearboxes that feature robust construction and are maintenance-free for a wide range of d...
9 Encoder Ready DC Motors Feature Planetary Gearboxes (July 15, 2010)
Nidal Copal's HG16 series is a RoHS compatible DC motor with planetary gearbox. The 0.63 inch OD (16 mm) DC motor has two axial lengt...
10 Ondrives Manufactures Showcase Gearboxes (April 17, 2006)
Ondrives Ltd. of Chesterfield, U.K., manufactured two gearboxes for a pharmaceutical companys teaching purposes. According to th...
11 ArvinMeritor Focuses on Automated Manual Gearboxes (April 15, 2006)
ArvinMeritor announced a decision to place greater emphasis on the sales and marketing of the FreedomLine automated manual transmission b...
12 GE Energy Partners with Chinese Co. To Develop Wind Turbine Gearboxes (April 22, 2006)
GE Energy and Nanjing High Speed & Accurate Gear Company (NGC) have agreed to jointly develop gearboxes for GE's 1.5-megawatt wind tu...
13 Renold Introduces Interchangeable Range of Gearboxes and Couplings (May 24, 2007)
Renold will exhibit its SMXtra interchangeable range of gearboxes and fluid couplings, for quarrying applications, at the Hillhead Exhibi...
14 Excel Gear Designs, Prototypes Navy Gun System Gearboxes (September 10, 2009)
Roscoe, IL-based Excel Gear has transitioned from prototype to production of 38:1 ratio gearboxes designed for positioning the gun mount ...
15 Rino Mechanical Components Inc. Launches E-Series Gearboxes (November 14, 2007)
With a recent upgrade to its mechanical tools, Rino Mechanical Components Inc. unveiled its new E-series of gearboxes. The E-series featu...
16 KISSsoft Offers Enhanced Heating Calculation for Gearboxes (September 3, 2015)
The efficiency calculation and thermal analysis according to ISO/TR 14179 (module KS2) has been extended with several useful functionalit...
17 Drive Lines Gearboxes Bring Flexibility to Machine Tools (May 23, 2016)
Whether cutting, boring, grinding or shearing, modern machine tools have to meet what at first sight appear to be conflicting operational...
18 Zero-Max Gearboxes Provide High Torsional Stiffness Using CD Couplings (July 29, 2019)
Flanged gearboxes are ideally suited for CD Couplings from Zero-Max. They provide high torsional stiffness in precision applications with...
19 Atlanta Drive Systems Offers Range of Stainless Steel Washdown Gearboxes (May 2, 2019)
Atlanta Drive Systems, Inc. is pleased to announce a new range of stainless steel washdown gearboxes, perfect for use in demanding appl...
20 Dana Introduces Range of Jack-up Gearboxes for Offshore Applications (December 10, 2019)
Dana Incorporated has announced the introduction of a complete range of Fairfield jack-up gearboxes for offshore applications, as well as...
21 AGMA Releases Standard for Wind Turbine Gearboxes (March 20, 2020)
The AGMA Technical Division is pleased to announce the publication of the following new AGMA publication: ANSI/AGMA 6006-B20, Standard fo...
22 Atlanta Drive Systems Introduces Stainless Steel Washdown Gearboxes (April 8, 2021)
Atlanta Drive Systems, Inc. is pleased to announce a new range of stainless steel washdown gearboxes, perfect for use in demanding applic...
23 GAM Introduces GSL Robotic Strain Wave Gearboxes (April 30, 2020)
GAM announces the release of the new GSL series of strain wave gearboxes. The new gearboxes provide zero-backlash and high torque in a sm...
24 Varvel Focuses on High Modular Gearboxes (February 1, 2019)
The need to keep customers in all parts of the world constantly supplied while minimizing stock in distributors' warehouses, and a ...
25 GAM Offers Robotic Cycloidal Gearboxes (November 20, 2018)
GAM announces the release of the new GCL cycloidal gearboxes. The new gearboxes provide high precision and rigidity for horizontal and ...
26 Drive Lines Servo Gearboxes Offer Versatility for Critical Applications (July 15, 2016)
Servo gearboxes are likely to be specified in an incredibly wide range of applications, from packaging machines to robots, medical equipm...
27 AutomationDirect Adds Helical Gearboxes to IronHorse Line (June 21, 2016)
AutomationDirect’s IronHorse line of motor products now includes helical gearboxes which provide quiet startup and smooth operation...
28 Varvel Offers RS and RT Series Worm Gearboxes (January 19, 2018)
The Varvel RS and RT series worm gearboxes demonstrate the company’s versatility and innovation for a variety of demanding applicat...
29 Varvel Produces Custom Gearboxes in addition to Standard Offerings (February 16, 2018)
The Varvel Group can produce custom gearboxes to satisfy specific needs including a gearbox developed for an American customer that pro...
30 GAM Releases Zero-Backlash Robotic Gearboxes (September 4, 2018)
GAM announces the release of the new GPL zero-backlash planetary gearboxes. The new gearboxes provide high precision and rigidity for h...
31 Kluber Lubrication Offers Fully-Synthetic Oil for Rail Gearboxes (June 21, 2018)
Klüber Lubrication, a worldwide manufacturer of specialty lubricants, offers Klübersynth GE 4 80 W 140, a fully synthetic hig...
32 Cotta Offers Remote Monitoring for Gearboxes (September 30, 2021)
Cotta is now offering industry leading remote monitoring capabilities for many gearboxes within their product line. Remote monitoring all...