Articles About Efficiency
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As gear efficiency is improved in small steps, it is important to be able to distinguish actual improvements from scatter that can occur while testing. An FZG back-to-back gear test rig was used to investigate how the assembly and re-assembly of the same test setup affects the measurements. A spread in torque loss between one assembly and another of the same test setup were observed. Rig conditions also affected the spread in input torque. With knowledge of how the spread in torque loss varies due to assembly, test results could be distinguished between changes due to assembly and actual differences between tests.
In recent years the estimation of gearbox power loss is attracting more interest â” especially in the wind turbine and automotive gearbox industry â” but also in industrial gearboxes where heat dissipation is a consideration as well. As new transmissions concepts are being researched to meet both ecological and commercial demands, a quick and reliable estimation of overall efficiency becomes inevitable in designing the optimal gearbox.
Electric motor-driven systems are the single largest enduser of electricity, accounting for over 40% of global consumption according to the International Energy Agency.
The use of motor structures which can concentrate magnetic flux allows ferrite PM motors to achieve performance and power densities that approach those of PM motors using rare earth magnets, but without the cost penalties and supply source concerns of rare earth magnets.
Varying installation requirements for worm gears, as, for example, when used in modular gear systems, can necessitate grease lubrication - especially when adequate sealing for oil lubrication would be too complex. Such worm gears are being increasingly used in outside applications such as solar power plants and slew drives. While knowledge about the operating conditions is often appropriate, the basic understanding for load capacity and efficiency under grease lubrication is quite poor. Investigations done at FZG and sponsored by FVA/AiF are shown here to give an impression of the basic factors of load capacity and efficiency. The results of the investigation indicate a satisfying quality of calculations on heat, load capacity and efficiency based on characteristic parameters of the base oil with only slight modifications to the methodology known from DIN 3996 or ISO TR 14521.
This paper presents a physically grounded calculation method to determine the efficiency of worm gear drives. This computation is based on the Institute of Machine Elements, Gears, and Transmissions (MEGT) tribological simulation, which can determine the local tooth friction coefficients (Ref. 1). With this knowledge other power losses such as the bearings, oil churnings and seals power losses can also be calculated.
Conservation through lighting alterations using different bulbs, ballasts and light sources is well understood and easy to achieve. The use of improved efficiency three phase induction motors has not been as accepted. There are a number of reasons why conservation efforts with motors have not been as popular.
Much of the industrial energy being consumed by systems is wasted through inefficiency. For this article, a system will be defined as the following components working together: electrical input power, variable frequency drives, induction motors, gearboxes and transmission elements (chains, belts, etc.).
In this work a physically based method for the tribological investigation of worm gears is presented.
Thrust cone bearings are an elegant option to handle the axial forces generated by the torque transmission in helical-toothed gear stages. They have proven as an efficient and reliable bearing concept for integrally geared compressors but are nearly unknown in other fields of gearbox engineering. The presented investigations consider three aspects which appear relevant to extend the field of possible applications for thrust cones towards gearboxes constructed with roller bearings.
Over the past few decades, energy efficiency in motors has become an ever-increasing concern for OEMs and manufacturers alike. With multiple energy bills mandating higher efficiency across ever-broader spectrums of motors, including the most recent Small Motor Rule by the Department of Energy, efficiency has become an essential consideration when choosing a new motor.
motors with premium efficiency counterparts presents businesses with a significant opportunity to reduce operating costs. A comparison between premium and standard efficiency motors from 0.25 to 10 horsepower is conducted; comparisons of full-load efficiencies are shown, and estimated payback periods are calculated. Methods for calculating the yearly kilowatt-hour consumption and yearly cost savings of premium efficiency motors for this horsepower range are also given. The cost advantages of premium efficiency motors are summarized, and relevant examples of real world cost savings are shown.
In keeping with a national push to bring greater energy efficiency to wastewater treatment plants, a Pennsylvania facility used data loggers to analyze motor utilization, a first step toward cutting energy costs and meeting environmental rules.
How to Ensure Reliable Performance, Increased Efficiency and Lowest Total Cost of Ownership.
Energy costs and downtime can be greatly reduced by instituting a motor management plan. Part II of this three-part series specifically addresses the establishment of a motor failure policy and the development of purchasing specifications. Part I addressed the general aspects of a motor management plan, including the first steps of creating a motor inventory and guidelines for motor repair and replacement. Part III will examine motor repair specifications as well as preventive and predictive maintenance.
Gearing is an essential component in conveyors. The material handling industry appears divided between those who favor high-end three-stage helical bevel gearboxes and those who rely on less expensive worm gearing. But thereâ™s an often over-looked alternative, the two-stage helical bevel gearbox.
Increasing pressure on many fronts is compelling mine operators to thoroughly examine every phase of their operations. Fluctuating demand that whipsaws mineral prices, government-imposed environmental regulations and rising operating costs related to maintenance downtime all pose serious challenges for the mining sector. Add pressure from customers and stakeholders for more sustainable operations as well as union demands for higher wages, and you have a scenario that requires mine operators to exercise every possible option to achieve more efficient operations.
A good deal of confusion exists regarding the factors that determine an industrial electric bill. The following information is presented to help sort out the various items on which billing is based, and to offer suggestions on measures to help control and reduce electric utility bills.
Copper's continuing role in energy-efficient motor development.
CEE/NEMA repair-or-replace campaign saves energy, dollars and downtime.
Reducing losses and increasing profits by instituting a motor management plan is what this series of articles is all about. Here in Part I, we discuss how to create a motor inventory and establish repair-or-replace motor guidelines. Subsequent topics in this three-part series will address (Part II) motor failure policies and purchasing specifications, and (Part III) repair specifications and preventive and predictive maintenance, respectively.
This three-part series on motor management best practices focuses on the importance of instituting a motor management plan as a necessity in effectively administering the electric motors in a facility. The goal of a motor management plan is to take advantage of opportunities for energy savings and increased productivity using energy efficient, reliable motors such as NEMA Premium efficiency motors, herein referred to as âœpremium efficiencyâ motors.
Energyâ™s endless energy efficiency game of whack-a-mole, motors have historically always been one of the go-to moles. Theyâ™ve been in the spotlight since 1992. Over the past few decades, repeated efficiency laws have seen motor efficiency get whacked into tighter and tighter shape.
U.S. manufacturers, such as food processors, face an unprecedented competitive environment and must look for ways to be profitable without negatively affecting the quality of finished products.
The Role of Coupling Technology in Current Developments in Industry
Options abound for increased efficiency in lubrication.
Motion systems bring award-winning and energy-optimizing âœSmart Houseâ to life.
Our politicians in Washington continue dithering over the Obama administration energy bill aimed at developing alternative, green sources of energy production. As a result, when this country will have a viable energy program in place is anyoneâ™s guess, given the usual D.C. gridlock. And yet, Americans can take more than cold comfort in the fact that at least some government agenciesâ”U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)â”and the private sectorâ”some major manufacturersâ”are doing more than their share of work in trying to harness our existing, fossil-based energy sources in such a way that they are used to their best efficiencies.
The Bearing Specialists Association explains the role of bearings in ensuring the efficient operation of machinery.
The secondhand on the Doomsday dial ominously spins around the face, slowly but ever so surely inching the motor industry towards its inevitable terminus:
Perhaps you donâ™t need convincing that sustainability is the wave of the future. But where to start? Resources of all typesâ”from websites to trade shows to white papersâ”are waiting to help green your operation. Most areas are home to regional business alliances devoted to helping local manufacturing outlets contribute in an environmentally sound manner. Here are a few go-to resources for going green.
Synchronous motors controlled by variable speed drives are bringing higher efficiencies to industrial applications.
It is a simple fact: better lubrication can lead to dramatic energy savings and an improved bottom line. This ought to interest any plant manager who is looking for ways to reduce operating costs, and it is especially significant at a time when stricter government regulations are in direct contradiction to reducing costs. Lubrication reliability is the solution; this article will describe how manufacturing plants can use âœlubrication reliability best-practicesâ to reduce their energy consumption, emissions and operating costs—all at the same time.
According to the Department of Energy (DOE), more than half of all electrical energy consumed in the U.S. is used by electric motors. To address this, several years ago, the DOE conducted a technical study as to what could be done to raise the efficiency levels of âœsmallâ motors. After years of study and litigation, the Small Motor Rule (SMR) was passed that covers two-digit NEMA frame single- and three-phase ¼ through 3 horsepower motors in open enclosures.
The improvement of the energy efficiency of industrial gear motors and gearboxes is a common problem for many gear unit manufacturers and end-users. As is typical of other mechanical components, the radial lip seals used in such units generate friction and heat, thus contributing to energy losses of mechanical systems. There exist today simulation tools that are already helping improve the efficiency of mechanical systems â” but accurate models for seal frictional losses need to be developed. In this paper SKF presents an engineering model for radial lip seal friction based on a physical approach.
This product focus highlights the latest technology in electric motors.
The mechanical components of your drive system play a major role in overall system efficiency. Don't cut corners.
Managing Editor Randy Stott takes a look at what is really stopping us from pursuing energy efficiency in engineering.
Next time you are strolling across a manufacturing plant, check out the hardware on the ground. Shop floors are nothing but cables plugged into machines, cables plugged into computers, cables plugged into other cables...
In looking for potential opportunities to reduce energy consumption via the drive system, a number of areas should be considered.
While some organizations focus on real-world analytics and data collection for predictive maintenance, simulation tools and virtual prototyping can be another solution for motor efficiency.
If you can find that magic bullet that will reduce the machining process, you can achieve meaningful efficiency gains. It is imperative that check-weighers or in-motion weighing systems remain both accurate and efficient while attaining a consistently smooth operation because they dynamically weigh products as they move across the belt.
Energy efficiency is for more than just motors. Here are some mechatronics companies making sure you get more bang for your buck when it comes to your power bill.
Based on simulation methods and calculation tools developed by the Schaeffler Group and presented in the first part of this paper, three approaches regarding increased efficiency based on rolling bearings are presented.
A wide variety of companies displayed mechanical power transmission and motion control technologies at Pack Expo, held in November in Chicago. The event, which is the largest packaging and processing trade show in North America, attracted more than 48,000 attendees, according to show owner and producer PMMI. The four-day event included 2,352 exhibiting companies, an increase of more than 19 percent from the previous show in 2012.
Today, better fuel economy is a main objective in the automotive development process. It remains top-of-mind with the auto industry and consumers because of costs and environmental impacts. Because the industry’s average fuel-economy standard is required to increase by 40 percent by 2020, manufacturers and engineers are working to develop fuel-efficient, environmentally friendly and reliable designs for vehicles.
Amps, Watts, Power Factor and Efficiency; Approximate Load Data from Amperage Readings; Power Factor Correction on Single-Induction Motors.
This issue we take a long, hard look at motor efficiency, and you should, too. After all, electric motors used in industrial settings are the single largest consumer of electricity in the United States. Upgrading your electric motors is not only good for the environment, but itâ™s also good for your bottom line. Sure, saving electricity lessens the burden on our countryâ™s energy infrastructure. But it also saves you money in the long run.
Experts gathered at the 9th CTI Symposium to discuss the challenges of reducing noise, improving energy efficiency and meeting the changing demands of the marketplace
How would you compare the efficiency and capabilities of hybrid stepper motor actuators vs. can stack stepper motor actuators?
A thermo-mechanical model of a splash lubricated one-stage gear unit is presented. This system corresponds to a first step towards the design of a hybrid vehicle gearbox that can operate up to 40,000 rpm on its primary shaft. The numerical model is based on the thermal network method and takes into account power losses due to teeth friction, rolling-elements bearings and oil churning. Some calculations underline that oil churning causes a high amount of power loss. A simple method to reduce this source of power losses is presented, and its influence on the gear unit efficiency and its thermal capacity is computed.
When talking about high-end machining or manufacturing applications that include direct-drive technology, one of the key advantages of utilizing this particular transmission method is its endurance. Because of the very nature of direct-drive motors they are able to operate at peak performance levels indefinitely â” without any kind of wear or aging â” as long as the motor isnâ™t pushed past its capacity. Unfortunately, because this isnâ™t a perfect world, unexpected things can happen which can cause the motor to overheat. Whether the heat source is due to a parameter being input incorrectly, or an unexpected external force causing more resistance than expected â” it is important to have certain forms of thermal protection in place. Since torque motors are built in such a way that they cannot be repaired and yet maintain their efficiency, it is vital to prevent any overheating â” thus precluding the need to purchase a new one.
Electric motors are often considered a mature industryâ” one whose basic technology wasinvented more than a century ago and whose fundamental concepts havenâ™t changed much since. But new applications continue to demand change. Engineers want greater efficiency, more precise control and improved reliability.
Engineers are often challenged with the seemingly impossible task of doing more with less. Customers want more power transmitted in a smaller space, they want more efficient designs, and, of course, they want to spend less money. So engineers are always looking for ways to squeeze the most out of their mechanical systems. Theyâ™re constantly working to maximize power density, increase energy efficiency and reduce costs to meet their customersâ™ needs.
Standardized calculation methods such as ISO 6336 and DIN 3990 already exist to determine the load distributions on gears inside a planetary gearbox, but by their very universal nature, these methods offer varying results depending on the gearbox design. Double helical gears, in particular, can benefit from more specific, complex algorithms to reach a maximum level of efficiency. Double helical gears interact with the rest of the gearbox differently than helical or spur gears, and thus benefit from different analytical models outside the standardized methods. The present research project describes the algorithm to determine the load distribution of planetary gearboxes with double helical gears.
Slow speed operation of fan systems within the air handling industry is generally performed due to two reasons: a coast down operation is required for hot (induced draft) fans to cool down before shutdown (often by using a turning gear), and operational efficiency improvements can be achieved during non-peak periods by slow speed operation using a VFD. In either case, when these fans are supported by hydrodynamic bearings, it is the oil film thickness developed from the bearing-shaft interaction that limits the minimum speed that can be maintained without causing premature wear and bearing failure. This paper will present a brief overview of lubrication theory and critical design parameters to achieve slow speed operation.
Lubrication management should be standard operating procedure at any manufacturing facility. Vital to both operational and maintenance personnel, a strong, coherent and specific lubrication program will have lasting results in machine efficiency and maintenance. Of course, even those with the best intentions canâ™t always keep up with the challenges presented day-to-day on the manufacturing floor. Thankfully, PTE is here to help with eight steps to selecting, storing, analyzing and managing your lubrication requirements.
During the past 10 years, the PM industry has put a lot of focus on how to make powder metal gears for automotive transmissions a reality. To reach this goal, several hurdles had to be overcome, such as fatigue data generation on gears, verification of calculation methods, production technology, materials development, heat treatment recipes, design development, and cost studies. All of these advancements will be discussed, and a number of vehicles with powder metal gears in their transmissions will be presented. How the transmissions have been redesigned in order to achieve the required stress levels while minimizing weight and inertia, thus increasing efficiency, will also be discussed.
Can direct drive technology improve your bottom line? Manufacturers relying upon drive systems in their production process have long sought ways to improve gearbox efficiency. While a gearbox-driven system has been the mainstay for manufacturers, it has also been, among other things, the source of frequent breakdowns, expensive line stoppages and increasingly costly maintenance.
One of the driving forces behind the industrial revolution was the inventionâ”more than a century agoâ”of the electric motor. Its widespread use for all kinds of mechanical motion has made life simpler and has ultimately aided the advancement of humankind. And the advent of the inverter that facilitated speed and torque control of AC motors has propelled the use of electric motors to new realms that were inconceivable just a mere 30 years ago. Advances in power semiconductorsâ”along with digital controlsâ”have enabled realization of motor drives that are robust and can control position and speed to a high degree of precision. The use of AC motor drives has also resulted in energy savings and improved system efficiency. This paper reviews the development and application of inverter technology to AC motor drives and presents a vision for motor drive technology.
While it is valid to state that energy efficiency is defined as the same level of production being achieved at an overall lower energy cost, it is equally important for todayâ™s machine builders and automation engineers alike to remember that an energy-efficient system can actually translate into higher productivity. This is achievable through a comprehensive approach to energy management.
The demand for stepping motors with high efficiency and low losses has been increasing, although the demand had been previously focused on high torque. Also, the selection of the most suitable grade of lamination for improvement in fastening of the laminated cores has reduced losses significantly at their peak, when compared to conventional stepping motors. Lowering the losses of the motor has enabled continuous operation that was previously impossible. An expansion of the stepping motorâ™s usage into applications where another motor has been used for continuous operation and other usesâ”due to the heat generation problemâ”can now be pursued. In addition, these motors are very effective for energy saving. This paper explains the technology used for lowering the iron losses of the stepping motor.
Green technology is more than changing a couple of light bulbs or reducing waste. In 2009, the concept is relevant in every facet of manufacturing as companies make a greater push towards energy efficiency and sustainability. In the power transmission and motion control fields, this technology has been integrated into the daily routine, both as an environmentally friendly business venture and a way to offer green products to customers. Itâ™s apparent that the revitalization of manufacturing, both here and abroad, will center on energy technology.
13 trade fairs examine smart efficiency.
The 2011 show examines sustainability, plant efficiency and total systems solutions.
In most applications, gearbox reliability is critical to the productivity of the overall plant operation. So it follows that when industry is looking at the best ways to increase efficiency, reduce downtime, and increase profitability, gearbox performance and reliability are key factors. Designing for repair, and writing effective repair procedures, can speed the service time, and provide a quality refurbishment. The best practices listed in this article are proven, effective methods used to install and remove bearings, seals, gears, couplings and shafts within a gearbox.
This article presents the first kW-Class, 3-phase GaN-based inverter. Hard-switched at 100-kHz PWM, its heart is a 6-in-1 power module with 600-V GaN power HEMTs, achieving a new efficiency of 98.5%, a more than 2% improvement.
Bearings used to support main spindles on machine tools must be capable of higher speed and greater rigidity. This is true in that any main spindle that turns together with a tool or work piece mounted onto it is one of the critical machine tool components that directly affects machining efficiency and accuracy of the machine tool; and, the bearings that support the main spindle are the most critical machine elements on the machine tool.
The demand for stepping motors with high efficiency and low losses has been increasing right along with the existing focus on high torque. The selection of the most suitable grade and improvement in the fastening of the laminated cores has reduced losses significantly at their peak when compared to conventional stepping motors.
While the basic design of iron and coke blast furnaces is centuries old, today's steel makers are looking for innovative ways to produce molten iron with increased production and efficiency
News Items About Efficiency
1 IEEE Praises Legislation's Focus on Industrial Efficiency (December 10, 2012)
The Industrial Energy Efficiency Coalition (IEEC) praised House passage of H.R. 6582, the American Energy Manufacturing Technical Correc...
2 Bauer Takes Steps to Meet Energy Efficiency Regulations (February 18, 2014)
Plans by the European Commission to tighten the regulations on the energy efficiency of electric motors came into force at the end of 201...
3 Bauer Gear PMSM Series Offers Efficiency and Flexibility (March 7, 2014)
The IE2 regulations effectively cleaned-up the lower efficiency end of the market; if an application requires a motor to operate rarely, ...
4 Revolvo's Water Wheel Bearings Improve Efficiency and Reliability (December 17, 2014)
For any power generation project, efficiency and reliability are two very important characteristics. So, when a 2-star Michelin restauran...
5 NSK Low Torque Bearings Improve Energy Efficiency in MRO Sector (February 13, 2015)
NSK is known across the world for its class leading reliability and long bearing life, as well as its economic and environmental credenti...
6 Bauer Motor Design Fulfills Efficiency Standards (November 21, 2013)
The need to convert customers from super price sensitive buyers to intelligent, specification and purchasing entities remains an on-going...
7 Obama Signs Energy Efficiency Provisions (December 19, 2012)
President Obama today signed into law a handful of energy efficiency provisions endorsed by the National Electrical Manufacturers Associa...
8 Green Manufacturing News Helps Manufacturers Save Energy, Reduce Pollution and Improve Efficiency (December 2, 2008)
Green Manufacturing News is a resource with information for manufacturers who are interested in saving energy, reducing pollution and imp...
9 Coreless Design Maximizes Motor Efficiency (February 17, 2009)
Portescap, a Danaher Motion Company, introduces the Athlonix high-power density brush DC motors, which are compact, highly-efficient endu...
10 Roller Bearings Key to Energy Efficiency (October 25, 2011)
Schaeffler Group Industrial’s efficient rolling bearings with optimized friction from the INA and FAG brands are a key component f...
11 Weiss Challenges Axis of Power, Efficiency of Cost With 3-Axis Design (April 23, 2015)
In an effort to advance palletizing applications that do not require the traditional SCARA (Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm) syst...
12 Permanent Magnet Motor Offers Efficiency Gains (April 17, 2013)
SyMAX IHP (integral horsepower) is a permanent magnet AC motor range whose radial flux design delivers high torque, ultra high efficiency...
13 Brother Will Introduce ie3 Premium Efficiency Gearmotors at Pack Expo (August 7, 2015)
Brother Gearmotors recently announced it will introduce a line of ie3 premium efficiency gearmotors at Pack Expo Las Vegas, Sept. 28-30.T...
14 Continental Receives Ambassador of Energy Efficiency Award (November 23, 2016)
Continental’s St. Marys, Ohio, plant, its premier North American manufacturing facility for engineered products, recently received ...
15 Huco Air Motors Bring Efficiency to Hazardous Application Areas (December 21, 2016)
Huco Dynatork 3 air motors bring efficiency, performance and versatility to hazardous application areas. When you require a low cost, eff...
16 NEMA Standard Adds Efficiency Test for Air-Over Motors (March 14, 2017)
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) released a new efficiency test method for air-over (AO) motors as part of its MG...
17 Bonfiglioli BSR Synchronous Reluctance Motors Offer Higher Power and Efficiency (December 19, 2017)
The new range of Bonfiglioli’s BSR synchronous reluctance motors reaches efficiency class IE4 at the same stator length as the four...
18 Baldor's Malinowski Recognized for Energy Efficiency Contributions (November 7, 2016)
John Malinowski, Baldor Electric Company’s senior director of industry affairs, was recently recognized with the MS’16 Award ...
19 CEMEP and NEMA Agree on Systematic Approach to Motor Efficiency Standards (October 13, 2016)
Members of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Motor and Generator Section and the European Committee of Manufacture...
20 PKB Examines Miniature and Micro Ball Bearing Efficiency (March 10, 2016)
Bearing speed is affected by a variety of factors including bearing geometry. Bearing rings must be ground to very tight tolerances and p...
21 Lenze Introduces Three-Phase AC Motor for Efficiency Gains (April 26, 2016)
Lenze Americas recently introduced the m550-P three-phase AC motor designed to achieve IE3 efficiency class in accordance with IEC60034-3...
22 Fluid Power Track Offers Energy Efficiency, Productivity and Machine Safety at MDA North America (July 25, 2016)
Senior level discussions about the latest innovations in hydraulics and pneumatics equipment utilized to lower manufacturers’ energ...
23 NEMA's Hoyt Set to Co-Chair 2016 International Motor Summit for Energy Efficiency (September 28, 2016)
Impact Energy, an international operating center of competence for energy efficiency, recently announced that National Electrical Manufac...
24 Drive System Design Opens Test Facility on Improving Driveline Efficiency (April 10, 2018)
A new test facility has been developed in Michigan to help vehicle manufacturers and their suppliers increase the efficiency of vehicle...