Drive System Design
Articles About Drive System Design
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Experts gathered at the 9th CTI Symposium to discuss the challenges of reducing noise, improving energy efficiency and meeting the changing demands of the marketplace
The complete Industry News section from the June 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
This article presents the first kW-Class, 3-phase GaN-based inverter. Hard-switched at 100-kHz PWM, its heart is a 6-in-1 power module with 600-V GaN power HEMTs, achieving a new efficiency of 98.5%, a more than 2% improvement.
This paper will look at the solutions that current drive and motor technology can offer in not only improving tension control but also solving several other issues that are inherent to systems with high ratio gearing.
When software goes bad, what do we call it? System failure? Human failure? A virus? A number of words will work. How about this? Glitch. It has that onomatopoeic quality that fairly screams, Downtime! And with good reason -- software-generated miscalculations can have very expensive -- if not perilous -- repercussions.
Highlights from some of the gear, gear drive, power transmission component, software, materials and related exhibitors at Gear Expo 2017.
When it comes to gear design software, the learning curve never ends. The leading vendors offer various training programs to keep their users well-informed.
The complete Product News section from the September 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
You may have noticed a lot of merger and acquisition activity lately in the power transmission industry. What does it mean?
The latest mechanical power transmission products from Nord Drivesystems, Gearing Solutions, Ogura Industrial, Stafford Manufacturing, Rexnord, Portescap, Steinmeyer, Intellidrives, J.W. Winco and Zero-Max.
One of our goals at Power Transmission Engineering is to help you understand, identify and select the best technology for your mechanical power transmission or motion control applications. With every project, you have to decide which components to use, and which suppliers, based on functionality, quality and price. We aim to help you make those decisions informed by providing the latest information on current technology, especially when it comes to mechanical components.
The mechanical components of your drive system play a major role in overall system efficiency. Don't cut corners.
How one gearbox manufacturer took an existing design and transformed it to meet the needs of this demanding environment.
Latest information about upcoming products.
Tooth contact analysis (TCA) is an important tool directed to the determination of contact patterns, contact paths, and transmission errors in gear drives. In this work, a new general approach that is applicable to any kind of gear geometry is proposed.
New products within the Industry
The performance of high-speed helical geartrains is of particular importance for tiltrotor aircraft drive systems. These drive systems are used to provide speed reduction/torque multiplication from the gas turbine output shaft and provide the necessary offset between these parallel shafts in the aircraft. Four different design configurations have been tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center, High-Speed Helical Geartrain Test Facility. The design configurations included the current aircraft design, current design with isotropic superfinished gear surfaces, double-helical design (inward and outward pumping), increased pitch (finer teeth), and an increased helix angle. All designs were tested at multiple input shaft speeds (up to 15,000 rpm) and applied power (up to 5,000 hp). Also two lubrication, system-related, variables were tested: oil inlet temperature (160â“250° F) and lubricating jet pressure (60â“80 psig). Experimental data recorded from these tests included power loss of the helical system under study, the temperature increase of the lubricant from inlet to outlet of the drive system and fling-off temperatures (radially and axially). Also, all gear systems were tested with and without shrouds around the gears.
Standardized calculation methods such as ISO 6336 and DIN 3990 already exist to determine the load distributions on gears inside a planetary gearbox, but by their very universal nature, these methods offer varying results depending on the gearbox design. Double helical gears, in particular, can benefit from more specific, complex algorithms to reach a maximum level of efficiency. Double helical gears interact with the rest of the gearbox differently than helical or spur gears, and thus benefit from different analytical models outside the standardized methods. The present research project describes the algorithm to determine the load distribution of planetary gearboxes with double helical gears.
News about new Products in the industry.
Latest news on products.
Gear drives focus on longevity, quality and customization.
Motion control systems engineers work chiefly in two well-defined areas: 1) new designs and 2) redesigns or retrofits. This article examines the best approach for each option.
The complete Industry News section from the June 2019 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Industry News section from the August 2019 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Product News section from the March 2019 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Industry News section from the April 2019 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
PTE Examines Gearmotor and Gear Drive Technology
The following article is a round-up of the latest linear motion product and industry news items featured at www.powertransmission.com and on social media.
The complete product news section from the October 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering (PTE).
Options available for those looking for safe, online/in-person gear knowledge.
One of the driving forces behind the industrial revolution was the inventionâ”more than a century agoâ”of the electric motor. Its widespread use for all kinds of mechanical motion has made life simpler and has ultimately aided the advancement of humankind. And the advent of the inverter that facilitated speed and torque control of AC motors has propelled the use of electric motors to new realms that were inconceivable just a mere 30 years ago. Advances in power semiconductorsâ”along with digital controlsâ”have enabled realization of motor drives that are robust and can control position and speed to a high degree of precision. The use of AC motor drives has also resulted in energy savings and improved system efficiency. This paper reviews the development and application of inverter technology to AC motor drives and presents a vision for motor drive technology.
The complete Industry News section from the September 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Product News section from the February 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
This article describes how more sophisticated modeling techniques allow the latest software to identify design issues with bearings, shafts, gears and complicated multi-body systems.
The complete Industry News section from the March 2020 issue of Power Transmission Engineering
When you work day-in and day-out with components like gears, bearings or electric motors, for example, it's easy to forget that those components are always part of a much bigger system.
America suffers $4.4 billion in losses due to earthquakes every year. While that's a drop in the bucket for our $16 trillion plus GDP, it's still a substantial amount of money, and some people are working to lessen those losses. One group is Earthquake Protection Systems (EPS), a company that is designing bearings to better protect buildings from earthquake damage.
Today, better fuel economy is a main objective in the automotive development process. It remains top-of-mind with the auto industry and consumers because of costs and environmental impacts. Because the industry’s average fuel-economy standard is required to increase by 40 percent by 2020, manufacturers and engineers are working to develop fuel-efficient, environmentally friendly and reliable designs for vehicles.
The complete Product News section from the September 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
This special advertising section features some of our VIP exhibitors.
News from around the Industry
Standing in a factory or a warehouse, you're bound to notice machinery, whether it's a conveyor system that winds across the floor or large fans that hang from the ceiling. You may even notice automated guided vehicles or autonomous mobile robots carrying parts, driving themselves from one section of the building to another. These machines are good candidates for using high-efficiency gearmotors, especially if they're expected to run for long stretches at a time. If they aren't using high-efficiency gearmotors, then they may be costing more money than they should.
Welcome to the Age of Information, where flexible, intelligent drive systems separate the haves from the have nots
This issue Engineering Showcase features some of the leading suppliers of couplings.
The following recap looks at some of the exhibitors from Gear Expo that manufacture mechanical power transmission components or provide resources for these components.
Key technical drivers which can be addressed by advanced PM manufacturing technologies are, for example, the need for system downsizing in transmissions and differentials, the need for developing systems with higher power density and the strong NVH (Noise Vibration Harshness) requirements - especially for electrified transmissions or e-axle solutions.
Increasing power density and improving cylinder lifespan are key issues.
All about new Products
The complete Product News section from the February 2010 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Industry News section from the June 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
OEMs can minimize the cost of ownership by using highly efficient motors and recognizing when unreliable motors are driving up the operating costs of their applications.
The complete Product News section from the December 2009 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete product news section from the December 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Industry News section from the September 2020 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Product News section from the October 2020 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete product news section from the June 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Are you looking for one simple formula to help you choose between centralized and decentralized motor control? Unfortunately, such a formula does not exist. However, evaluating the overall size of the system, comparing labor and material costs, and maintaining flexibility can help guide engineers in the right direction.
The complete Product News section from the August 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Our special advertising section takes a look at leading suppliers in the gear drives space.
Condition-based maintenance requires detailed state knowledge, often acquired by means of sensors.
Modeling and simulation is a key driver of innovation. Whether itâ™s general manufacturing, consumer goods or life sciences, the ability to realistically model and simulate the response of parts, sub-systems and complete assemblies to increase accuracy and repeatability is vital in todayâ™s analytical world.
Durability requirements must be balanced with the need for lightweight and low-cost solutions which meet noise and vibration targets whilst also exhibiting excellent efficiency.
With the constant push for sustainable and environmentally friendly procedures on Earth, you'd think weâ™d apply the same rules high above it.
In planetary gear systems of high power density and high gear ratio, helical gears create undesirable tilting moments on the planet gears; therefore, spur gears are still preferred for planetary gears -- a special challenge with respect to noise. Specifically, the different behavior of planetary gears with sequential and symmetric gear mesh is explained in this paper.
PTE Video from SKF, LinkedIn contribution from Dassault Systemes, Twitter updates on IFPE 2014 and a shout-out to the Gear Technology blog.
Condition Monitoring Technology Evolves for Gear Drives, Gearmotors and Gearboxes. Here's a look at what some leading manufacturers are offering.
Intelligent drive technology in the cowshed
Energy-challenged industries--and countries--can benefit from improved motor design and materials.
Here's what one supplier is doing to take advantage of the mobile phone in your pocket.
Our expert explores standard vs. optimized gears, as well as high contact ratio gearing.
It is hard these days to find any device that is not IoT-compatible or WiFi-connected. I recently had a new well pump installed that requires an iPhone for setup, which makes it hard for me to check or change the setup since I do not own an iPhone. In Olden Times, you had potentiometers or RS-232 connections - and that was fine.
The load carrying capacity of gear transmissions depends strongly on design, material and operation conditions. Modern analysis methods, e.g. finite element analysis (FEA), consider the above parameters with more or less sufficient accuracy. Yet it remains an ongoing challenge to account for backlash and manufacturing errors, despite a definite need to do so.
Gearboxes are important assemblies within mechatronic systems. During the design phase of such systems it is essential to know the gearbox behavior under consideration of dynamic interactions with its environment. Holistic system simulation helps the engineer to understand this and to improve, adjust, or optimize gearboxes and their application.
Thrust cone bearings are an elegant option to handle the axial forces generated by the torque transmission in helical-toothed gear stages. They have proven as an efficient and reliable bearing concept for integrally geared compressors but are nearly unknown in other fields of gearbox engineering. The presented investigations consider three aspects which appear relevant to extend the field of possible applications for thrust cones towards gearboxes constructed with roller bearings.
A reader is looking for the best reference materials with formulas for gear measurements over pins.
Does the definition of specific sliding mean the same between ISO 21771:2007 and AGMA 917-B97? In ISO, specific sliding is the ratio of the sliding speed to the speed of a transverse profile in the direction of the tangent to the profile. In AGMA, specific sliding is ratio of gear tooth sliding velocity to its rolling velocity.
Asymmetric tooth gears and their rating are not described by existing gear design standards. Presented is a rating approach for asymmetric tooth gears by their bending and contact stress levels, in comparison with symmetric tooth gears, whose rating are defined by standards. This approach applies finite element analysis (FEA) for bending stress definition and the Hertzian equation for contact stress definition. It defines equivalency factors for practical asymmetric tooth gear design and rating. This paper illustrates the rating of asymmetric tooth gears with numerical examples.
News from around the industry
In this centuryâ™s complex, ever- changing world of manufacturing, such capabilities as hardware and software expertise, effective location and distribution, business savvy and yes, even luck, are some of the cardinal requirements for running a successful business.
Slow speed operation of fan systems within the air handling industry is generally performed due to two reasons: a coast down operation is required for hot (induced draft) fans to cool down before shutdown (often by using a turning gear), and operational efficiency improvements can be achieved during non-peak periods by slow speed operation using a VFD. In either case, when these fans are supported by hydrodynamic bearings, it is the oil film thickness developed from the bearing-shaft interaction that limits the minimum speed that can be maintained without causing premature wear and bearing failure. This paper will present a brief overview of lubrication theory and critical design parameters to achieve slow speed operation.
I need help determining the diametral pitch needed to achieve the closest center-to-center distance for 2 spur gears. The 1st gear is a 34-tooth and the 2nd gear is a 28-tooth. The center-to-center distance between the gears needs to be as close to 2 1/8" as possible.
The complete Product News section from the October 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
When it comes to a steel-gear mesh, there are several common standards and design rules on how to reduce noise emissions in the mesh. But if plastic gears are involved, this is no longer the case. The topic of this presentation is to highlight some of the differences between metal-and-plastic gear meshes, i.e. which design strategies can be stated as valid for metal as well as plastic and which are not?
Special advertorial section featuring the latest technology in couplings from leading manufacturers.
The integration of manufacturing information into gear design software reduces cost during the design process by avoiding time-consuming back and forth between the design and manufacturing departments. The challenging task for such software is ensuring the design engineer does not need specific manufacturing expertise. Otherwise he or she would be overwhelmed and not use such a feature.
In this special advertising section, Power Transmission Engineering features several of the world's leading bearings suppliers and their latest technology.
Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) simulation and research from published information is used to compare the features of various coil configurations.
These versatile, low-cost and high-torque motors may be used open loop or as full servos - and several levels in between. The motor stator laminate designs divide these motors into those optimized for full stepping, and those optimized for micro stepping and servo operation. These differences can be easily measured with basic meters and oscilloscopes. Motor to motor variations can also be easily measured, and motor inductance at nominal speed and current can also be determined.
FVA Offers FE Shaft Calculations in the FVA-Workbench
One of the fun parts of the motion industry is involvement in popular movies! Motor specifications can be a bit rough: "I need to spin a 120-pound actor (and chair) 180 degrees in one-half second. He will be sitting up-right."
Power density is a key factor in gear design. Increasing the power density enables engineers to use smaller gears for their applications which lead to smaller and lighter gear boxes. The benefit for example for the automotive industry is less moving load in the vehicles and therefor a reduction of fuel consumption and subsequently a reduction of CO2 emission. The limiting factor for the increase in power density of gears is the material strength in regard to the critical failure mode.
Cylindrical gear design can be divided into three steps. In the first step, rough gear pair dimensions such as center distance and face width are being estimated. Center distance and face width are directly linked to the available space (housing dimensions) and influence the overall size, weight and cost of the gears.
Modern aircraft, missiles and space vehicles employ a large number of electric motors and actuators. While the basic design of these motors is in many respects very similar to that of their automotive and industrial counterparts, motors for aerospace applications differ significantly in some areas.
In a research project at the Vienna University of Technology, the KISSsoft design software was used to check a new drivetrain concept and the micro-geometry of the bevel gear stage for a UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle).
In the general context of the reduction of energy consumption and polluting emissions, gearbox efficiency has become a major issue.
This paper provides a mathematical framework and its implementation for calculating the tooth geometry of arbitrary gear types, based on the basic law of gear kinematics. The rack or gear geometry can be generated in two different ways: by calculating the conjugate geometry and the line of contact of a gear to the given geometric shape of a known geometry (e.g., a cutting hob), or by prescribing the surface of action of two gears in contact and calculating the correspondent flank shapes.
Is there a gear software package out there that will calculate the design of spur, helical, worm, and planetary gearsets? Also, we would like a program that calculates stresses and material selection. Finally, we would like to have the program calculate bearings loads, too. Thank you for your help.
This paper summarizes the chemical, metallurgical and physical aspects of bearing steels and their effect on rolling bearing life and reliability.
A reader asks for clarification on last issue's Ask the Expert column about ball screw sizing.
When designing spur teeth, is there a formula/guideline/design guide for determining the amount of crowning?
A reader asks what are the required parameters to properly specify a gear.
How does one draw and mesh involute gear teeth in AutoCAD?
The ball screw drive is an assembly that converts rotary motion to linear motion and vice versa. The ball screw drive consists of a ball screw and a ball nut with recirculating ball bearings...
You may have noticed that the magazine looks different this issue. The new look is part of an overall effort to refine our focus. We wanted to make clear to potential subscribers and advertisers how this magazine is different, why its content is important and where it fits in the marketplace.
The latest offering by machine design experts J.R. Hendershot and T.J.E. Miller is an 822-page brushless permanent-magnet (PM) machine design book that serves as a worthy follow-up to their 1994 work.
This paper describes the development of an educational program centered on electric motor and electric vehicle technology at the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Edgerton Center.
During the qualification campaign of the NIRSpec (near-infrared spectrometer) instrument mechanism, the actuator could not achieve the expected lifetime that had been extended during the development phase. The initial design could not be adapted to the requested number of revolutions during that phase. Consequently the actuator needed to be modified so that the function of the mechanism would not be endangered or, by extension, the overall function of the NIRSpec instrument. The modification included a change of the overall actuator designâ”internal dimensions, tolerances, materials, lubrication and assembly processâ”while keeping the interface to the mechanism, mass and function.
The availability of high-strength shaft materials, in combination with bearings with high carrying capacity, allows use of slimmer shafts. However, the modulus of elasticity remains the same, so seat design for bearings and gears must be given close attention.
The use of motor structures which can concentrate magnetic flux allows ferrite PM motors to achieve performance and power densities that approach those of PM motors using rare earth magnets, but without the cost penalties and supply source concerns of rare earth magnets.
Following is a presentation of a gear design based upon a theoretically perfect gear technology, for which an overview is offered for consideration. What follows is a report on the design's testing and subsequent manufacture of a hypoid gear pair for a 1999 Ford Mustang.
Beginning with a brief summary and update of the latest advances in the calculation methods for worm gears, the author then presents the detailed approach to worm gear geometry found in the revised ISO TR 10828. With that information, and by presenting examples, these new methods are explained, as are their possibilities for addressing the geometrical particularities of worm gears and their impact upon the behavior and load capacity of a gearset under working conditions based on ISO TR 14521 â” Methods B and C. The author also highlights the new possibilities offered on that basis for the further evolution of load capacity calculation of a worm gearset based on load and contact pressure distribution.
Circular pitch gives me the size of the teeth in my mind, but diametral pitch does not. What is the purpose of the diametral pitch concept? Does it merely avoid pi in calculation?
A four-point contact ball bearing makes it easy to simplify machine designs that combine radial, thrust and moment loads, because it can handle all three simultaneously. They are primarily used for slow-to-moderate-speed applications, or where oscillatory movement is predominant.
Spiroid and worm gears have superior advantages for hightorque and miniaturization applications. And for this reason they are particularly preferred in aerospace, robotic and medical applications. They are typically manufactured by hobbing technology, a process with a typical overall lead time of 4 to 14 weeks.
Todayâ™s competitive industrial gear marketplace demands products with excellent reliability, high capacity and low noise. Surface-hardened, ground tooth gearing predominates, but the legacy tooth forms handicap further improvements in capacity and noise generation. Vehicle and aircraft equipment use tooth forms not found in the standard tables to achieve better performance â” with little or no increase in cost. This paper will propose adopting these high-contact ratio forms to industrial use.
In this paper, the influences of various gear parameters on the mesh stiffness are systematically investigated by using the finite element method. The comprehensive analysis shows that contact ratios are the key factors affecting the fluctuation value of mesh stiffness.
Engineers typically learn that the bearing L10 life can be estimated using the so called âœC/P methodâ â” or the âœbasic rating lifeâ of the bearing, a method rooted in the 1940s. Major developments have since led to the âœmodified rating life,â released in ISO 281:2007, which includes the aiso life modification factor. In this paper a succession of equations used for bearing life ratings are reviewed, and current bearing life rating practices are discussed in detail. It is shown that â” despite the introduction more than 30 years ago of the adjustment factor of the basic rating life, and the standardization in 2007 of the aiso modification factor â” use of these improved calculation methods are not practiced by all engineers. Indeed â” many continue referring to the old model as a way of seeking compliance with existing, established practices.
When comparing bearing suppliers, engineers are often left with few options other than to compare dynamic load ratings and corresponding life calculations. Of course, we can look at steel and manufacturing quality; but if we are comparing sources of similar quality, those items may not provide a large contrast. It often surprises people to learn that bearing capacities are calculated values, not tested values. Lately, however, a trend is emerging for bearing suppliers to increase their ratings for higher performance bearings that have premium features such as higher quality steel and specilaized heat treatment. Bearing companies are under intense competitive pressure to make every feature add to the dynamic capacity of their bearings because it is very well understood that an increase in capacity adds to the bottom line.
The complete Industry News section from the September 2014 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The growth of worldwide energy consumption and emerging industrial markets demands an increase of renewable energy shares. The price pressure coming from coal, oil, nuclear and natural gas energy - combined with enormous worldwide production capacities for components of wind turbines - make wind energy a highly competitive market. The testing and validation of gearboxes within the test rig and the turbine environment attract a strong focus to the needs of the industry. The following contribution sums up the typical process requirements and provides examples for successful system and component verifications based on field measurements.
University lab's motor eliminates pricey rare-earth magnets.
The Calendar for events happening in the industry
According to the Department of Energy (DOE), more than half of all electrical energy consumed in the U.S. is used by electric motors. To address this, several years ago, the DOE conducted a technical study as to what could be done to raise the efficiency levels of âœsmallâ motors. After years of study and litigation, the Small Motor Rule (SMR) was passed that covers two-digit NEMA frame single- and three-phase ¼ through 3 horsepower motors in open enclosures.
A recent trend has been a movement to more user-friendly products in the mechanical power transmission industry. A good example of such a product is a high-horsepower, right angle, shaft-mounted drive designed to minimize installation efforts. Commonly referred to as an alignment-free type, it allows the drive package mounting to be quicker, more cost effective and require less expertise during installation. This facilitates the use of the drive in applications such as underground mining, where there is little room to maneuver parts. The most common application for the alignment-free style drive is for powering bulk material handling belt conveyors.
Schaeffler Touts System Solutions and Electrification Advancements at Detroit Symposium
All major manufacturers of 3-phase AC induction motors offer "inverter-duty" or "inverter-readyâ models, but while these motors have inverter-rated insulation to protect the windings, the bearings--their most vulnerable parts--are too often ignored.
Fairchild International, a U.S.-based manufacturer of underground mining equipment, has produced battery-powered DC scoops since the early 1980s. With 17 different models available, Fairchild offers a size to fit any coal mining operation, making it the leader in the industry.
The complete Industry News section from the August 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Beverage industry conveyor pours on advantages in distribution center. Case study describes the new conveying systems at Motion Industries Canada.
Even when the critical components of industrial power transmission gear drive systems are properly designed, specified and manufactured consistent with application requirements, performance problems can develop over time and failure may follow.
The complete Product News section from the June 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
A new preventive maintenance program at a leading New England Ivy League university demonstrates how the push for more sustainable "green" building management has led to a growing awareness of a chronic, widespread problem with HVAC motors—electrical bearing damage and failure.
SPS-IPC Drives 2011, which took place in Nuremburg, Germany in November, covered all components down to complete systems and integrated solutions in the electric automation industry.
The complete Product News section from the February 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Compact loaders are employed where large machines have no access or are over dimensioned. New hydrostatic drives from ZF meet the demanding needs of this market.
In looking for potential opportunities to reduce energy consumption via the drive system, a number of areas should be considered.
Gear drives deliver power to industrial equipment such as bulk material conveyors, mixers, pumps and paper mills. The reliability that translates into greater uptime and profitability begins by specifying and selecting the proper drives for these critical applications.
Our product focus includes the latest technology in gears and gear drives from the leading manufacturers.
A brief overview of the induction motor, including the basics of construction, performance and variable speed drives.
This paper outlines the design considerations that go into construction of a drive system in order to explain the importance of specific data, why it is required, and where design freedom is necessary. Apart from loads and speeds, interface dimensions and site specific conditions are also needed. Deciding up front which gear rating practice to select can affect the torque capacity of the drive train by ~15%.
EECV in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, keeps on expanding and improving. In 2013 their transhipment of coal increased and they installed a new bucket wheel reclaimer with a capacity of 3,500 tons per hour. They chose a direct-drive system from Bosch Rexroth for this big bucket wheel. The drive system consists of a HÃ¤gglunds MB 1600 motor and a DUe drive unit.
ContiTech and Wöhr Team up for Unique Residential Solution.
The complete Product News section from the December 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
A discussion of the basics in DC drives, DC motors, AC drives, AC motors and synchronous motors.
Hydrostatic drive concept gives LinsiTrak flexibility and versatility.
Power transmission and motion control companies will be on-hand during Hannover Messe 2013 to display the latest technology offerings in key product categories including roller bearings, gears, pumps, motors, transmissions, drive system components, clutches and braking systems.
The complete Industry News section from the August 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Dave Soma, the mechanical supervisor at Leland Olds Station, a coal-fired power plant near Stanton, North Dakota, says he and his maintenance team care deeply about keeping the plant running and providing people electricity, especially in the dead of winter.
The complete Product News section from the December 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
This article is designed to help describe the selection process of a reducer to be used in the parcel handling industry. It will go over the different applications for which gearboxes are used throughout parcel handling facilities such as UPS, FedEx and DHL.
The complete product news section from the June 2009 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The Royal Danish Theatre has occupied the heart of Copenhagen for centuries and recently upgraded to a new control system featuring Sprint Electric DC drives to extend the lives of the existing motors, keeping replacement costs down. The Swedish stage design and technology company Visual Act retained most of the original motors and mechanics while providing a much-needed facelift to the stage.
Bosch Rexroth assists Bell-Everman with linear actuator development.
Typically, zoo safari rides consist of cramped trams that take guests five miles-per-hour past various exhibits. You might catch a bear sleeping, hear scripted, narrated fun facts or be somewhat entertained by eccentric tour guides, but thereâ™s never much to look at except concession stands or souvenir shops.
If youâ™re replacing your belts more than once per year, itâ™s time to analyze your drive. From belt crimping damage to high belt installation tension to sprocket misalignment and adverse environmental conditions, this guide walks you through how to identify the reasons behind premature failure and makes recommendations on corrective and preventive measures.
Presented is a high-phase, order-induction motor drive for use in a series hybrid architecture. This solution overcomes numerous compromises in current hybrid powertrain designs. Notably, it allows for a vehicle that is competitive in terms of performance and cost.
Can direct drive technology improve your bottom line? Manufacturers relying upon drive systems in their production process have long sought ways to improve gearbox efficiency. While a gearbox-driven system has been the mainstay for manufacturers, it has also been, among other things, the source of frequent breakdowns, expensive line stoppages and increasingly costly maintenance.
The federal government estimates that manufacturing uses about one third of the energy consumed in the U.S., so manufacturing companies can play an important role in building a sustainable future.
The complete Industry News section from the February 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering
Brevini Power Transmission helps spectators enjoy stadium sights and sounds.
Entrust enlists Advanced Machine & Engineering for 7-axis, 2-spindle performance.
Sunnen grows product portfolio with motion control solution from Siemens.
Servo system from Bosch-Rexroth helps create more efficient beverage palletizer.
While safety functions have been integrated into drives packages for some years now, the current trends are very exciting, from many angles. Today, a full complement of safety functions can be implemented at the front-end of a system design on all types of production machines, including printing, packaging, converting, materials handling and other equipment used throughout American industry.
The Baldor Reliance RPM AC Cooling Tower Direct Drive Motor is designed exclusively for the cooling tower industry. This motor combines the technologies of the power-dense, laminated frame RPM AC motor with high performance, permanent magnet salient pole rotor designs.
Given that many different hydraulic systems recommend the use of either frequency converters or cyclic control (soft starter technologies), the question must be asked - Which one of these solutions is the most cost-effective in reducing energy consumption and providing the most satisfactory payback time?
Synchronous motors controlled by variable speed drives are bringing higher efficiencies to industrial applications.
The primary driver of an airport baggage handling queue conveyor must be able to operate under increasingly demanding operating conditions, including frequent starting and stopping. The selection of the primary driver of the queue conveyor is dependent on multiple criteria, including dimensional requirements and durability characteristics.
In this special news section, the editors of Power Transmission Engineering have gathered the latest product news and information from the gears and gear drives sector.
An exploration of direct drive motor trends and examples of design uses for direct drives as replacements for gear drives or belt drives.
Much of the industrial energy being consumed by systems is wasted through inefficiency. For this article, a system will be defined as the following components working together: electrical input power, variable frequency drives, induction motors, gearboxes and transmission elements (chains, belts, etc.).
Our politicians in Washington continue dithering over the Obama administration energy bill aimed at developing alternative, green sources of energy production. As a result, when this country will have a viable energy program in place is anyoneâ™s guess, given the usual D.C. gridlock. And yet, Americans can take more than cold comfort in the fact that at least some government agenciesâ”U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)â”and the private sectorâ”some major manufacturersâ”are doing more than their share of work in trying to harness our existing, fossil-based energy sources in such a way that they are used to their best efficiencies.
In order to make better purchasing decisions about centrifuge applications, one must understand the concept of centrifuges and the drives that operate this equipment.
What is the recommended method of gripping a spinning shaft (with up to 130 hp of rotational energy) to install pre-tension thrust bearings and conventional thrust bearings (load = hundreds of pounds) when the shaft cannot have any high points because it must pass through an area of tight clearances to assemble? Will snap rings still withstand the harsh vibration of this environment?
EDITORSâ™ NOTE: âœThe Applications of Bevel Gearsâ is the excerpted third chapter of Dr. Hermann Stadtfeldâ™s latest book â” Gleason Bevel Gear Technology (The Gleason Works, Rochester, New York, USA; All rights reserved. 2014; ISBN 978-0-615-96492-8.), which appears here unabridged through the kind graces of Dr. Stadtfeld and Gleason Corp. Future installments will appear exclusively in Power Transmission Engineering and Gear Technology magazine over the next 12 to 18 months.
In this work a physically based method for the tribological investigation of worm gears is presented.
Explosion-Proof Motors in Division 2 Areas and DC Drive Fundamentals
The technology continues to evolve in chain- and belt-driven systems
If you can find that magic bullet that will reduce the machining process, you can achieve meaningful efficiency gains. It is imperative that check-weighers or in-motion weighing systems remain both accurate and efficient while attaining a consistently smooth operation because they dynamically weigh products as they move across the belt.
Machinists Inc. is integrating the machinery, equipment and know-how of The Gear Works-Seattle Inc.
Framo Morat and Dunkermotoren Produce Drive Systems for Automatic Guided Vehicles.
A worm drive is a geared power transmission device in which a worm meshes with a worm gear to transmit power between two non-intersecting shafts that are oriented at a right angle. The worm drive has been an active and challenging topic of technological study since Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519).
The complete Industry News section from the September 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
New HMI from Siemens, ITAMCO ramps up additive manufacturing, LM76 introduces new linear bearings, plus other new products from around the industry.
Gearmotor manufacturers find new ways to push the envelope. (With Sidebar on new alternative to planetary gearboxes)
Energy efficiency is for more than just motors. Here are some mechatronics companies making sure you get more bang for your buck when it comes to your power bill.
Approximately one quarter of all servo motors around the world require some type of gear reduction in their applications. From large satellite dishes to precision medical devices, gearboxes boost torque and reduce speed for servos in order for them to be sized more efficiently. While gearbox fundamentals haven't changed much over the past 20 years, their effectiveness has improved significantly, driven mostly by the need to accommodate advancements in servo technology.
Health monitoring or condition monitoring has been used for many years on machines and in plants where the cost of an outage is high. It allows failures to be anticipated and maintenance or repairs to be scheduled for the least loss of production, as well as avoiding unnecessary periodic maintenance.
Enhancing Safety, Quality, Delivery and Cost.
The complete Product News section from the August 2019 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Efficiency, power-loss reduction and enhanced performance are just a few examples of what the PT community wants from their gears and gear drives in 2019. Some companies are doubling down on service and assembly capabilities while other others are integrating components in an effort to increase flexibility and control.
See our special advertising section focused on gears and gear drives from the September 2019 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Chain and sprocket drives of one form or another have been driving machines and conveying materials for over a thousand years. The chain manufacturing industry has developed numerous types and sizes of drive chains. Although it is a mature form of power transmission, there are still many industrial applications for which drive chain is suited. It is economical, resistant to shock loads, easy to install, has the ability to transmit high torque, operates in hostile environments, and is efficient. Chain and sprocket drives are highly engineered and manufactured within close tolerances.
The following special product news section examines the latest products and technologies in motion control.
A Look at Gear & Gear Drive Lubrication Performance Improvements
IMTS 2018 had its fair share of machine tools, 3D printers and advanced robotics. Meanwhile, the East Hall â” home to Hannover Messe USA â” took a more systematic approach, highlighting the smart components and techniques that will be integral in developing the digital factory of the future.
A Practical Comparison of Planetary and Orbitless Gear-Heads.
The complete Product News section from the February 2019 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Process Expo and Pack Expo Highlight the Latest Technology for Food & Beverage Applications.
As the old adage goes, "There is more than one way to skin a cat." In the early stages of any project, system designers are faced with choices; whether they are designing a new application or retrofitting an old one, they need to determine what is the most efficient, economical and practical way of completing the task at hand. Though there are usually at least two viable means to accomplish the task, the first step is always to review and weigh the merits of each option.
A thermo-mechanical model of a splash lubricated one-stage gear unit is presented. This system corresponds to a first step towards the design of a hybrid vehicle gearbox that can operate up to 40,000 rpm on its primary shaft. The numerical model is based on the thermal network method and takes into account power losses due to teeth friction, rolling-elements bearings and oil churning. Some calculations underline that oil churning causes a high amount of power loss. A simple method to reduce this source of power losses is presented, and its influence on the gear unit efficiency and its thermal capacity is computed.
With advances in modern technology reducing demand for envelopes, manufacturers are finding it increasingly hard to justify investment.
As with just about everything else in the manufacturing world â” and all which that universe entails â” it depends. After all, thatâ™s why the art of manufacturing is a process â” not a one-system-fits-all discipline. Yes, once that process has been properly designed and correctly implemented for a given manufacturing production need, it may well run like the astest, smoothest cookie-cutter-type operation ever devised.
As gear efficiency is improved in small steps, it is important to be able to distinguish actual improvements from scatter that can occur while testing. An FZG back-to-back gear test rig was used to investigate how the assembly and re-assembly of the same test setup affects the measurements. A spread in torque loss between one assembly and another of the same test setup were observed. Rig conditions also affected the spread in input torque. With knowledge of how the spread in torque loss varies due to assembly, test results could be distinguished between changes due to assembly and actual differences between tests.
Gearing is an essential component in conveyors. The material handling industry appears divided between those who favor high-end three-stage helical bevel gearboxes and those who rely on less expensive worm gearing. But thereâ™s an often over-looked alternative, the two-stage helical bevel gearbox.
One of the key challenges in the mining industry today is maintaining throughput in the face of ore grade quality that has declined by 40 percent in the last decade.
The improvement of the energy efficiency of industrial gear motors and gearboxes is a common problem for many gear unit manufacturers and end-users. As is typical of other mechanical components, the radial lip seals used in such units generate friction and heat, thus contributing to energy losses of mechanical systems. There exist today simulation tools that are already helping improve the efficiency of mechanical systems â” but accurate models for seal frictional losses need to be developed. In this paper SKF presents an engineering model for radial lip seal friction based on a physical approach.
The changing landscape of hydraulic drives is leading many fluid power specialists to quickly adapt to using variable speed pump drives. Optimum utilization of these drives requires, in many cases, additional system design considerations.
In recent years the estimation of gearbox power loss is attracting more interest â” especially in the wind turbine and automotive gearbox industry â” but also in industrial gearboxes where heat dissipation is a consideration as well. As new transmissions concepts are being researched to meet both ecological and commercial demands, a quick and reliable estimation of overall efficiency becomes inevitable in designing the optimal gearbox.
News about latest Products in the Industry
This paper presents a physically grounded calculation method to determine the efficiency of worm gear drives. This computation is based on the Institute of Machine Elements, Gears, and Transmissions (MEGT) tribological simulation, which can determine the local tooth friction coefficients (Ref. 1). With this knowledge other power losses such as the bearings, oil churnings and seals power losses can also be calculated.
Todayâ™s newspaper advertisers demand vibrant, attractive color printing, and newspaper printers are constantly looking for methods to improve printing processes to meet these demands. When it comes to improving the printing process, the key component is to choose the right printing press.
Referencing a June 2014 Article, âœHigh Gear Ratio Epicyclic Drives Analysis,â by Dr. Alex Kapelevich: I have designed a small compound epicyclic gearbox with common planets. Sun = 10 teeth Planet = 14 teeth Ring Gear stationary = 38 teeth Ring gear output = 41 teeth profile shifted onto a 38 tooth pitch diameter. Carriers are simply cages for the planet alignment and location. According to your article, and according to my calculations and the prototype I have built, my inputto- output ratio is a reduction of 65.6:1. I am using a ~ VG1 viscosity grease and Nylatron materials for the gears and carriers.
In the process of applying industrial drive products, we occasionally are misled into believing that we are applying horsepower. The real driving force is not horsepower - it is torque. This paper is developed to impart a deeper understanding of torque, its relationship to horsepower, and the types of loads we most frequently encounter.
The complete Industry News section from the June 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The latest tools and techologies in power transmission, motion control and related components.
Most of you who read this magazine have a close relationship with gears and gear drives. According to our surveys, 75% of you recommend, specify or buy them. It's a shame, then, that the majority of you will miss Gear Expo (Oct. 24-26 in Columbus, OH) this year.
In today's highly competitive world, the better someone understands the advantages and benefits of direct drive technology, then the more they will have an advantage in machine building, giving them an edge over their competition.
This paper presents a joint project conducted by Ashwoods Electric Motors and Oerlikon Fairfield that uses planetary drives with an integrated electric motor. Current solutions used in production of off-highway vehicles rely upon large, heavy and inefficient brushed DC or induction motors, coupled to a planetary gearbox. This presents a number of challenges to the vehicle designers such as: limited vehicle range, limited space around the motor/drivetrain, and motor durability. The proposed integrated system utilizes an Oerlikon Fairfield Torque Hub, widely used in off-highway vehicles, and the Ashwoods first-to-market, interior permanent magnet motor. How these products are integrated, i.e. incorporating a brake solution, represents a market-changing product. Using interior permanent magnet (IPM) technology in the motor design means the motor can be up to 70% lighter, 70% smaller and 20% more efficient than traditional motors used in off-highway traction applications.
For the lubrication of open gear drives used in different industrial applications such as cement and coal mills, rotary furnaces, or where the sealing conditions are difficult, semi-fluid greases are often used in preference to fluid oils. For girth gear applications the greases are used with a splash or spray lubrication system. The selection of such greases influences pitting lifetime and the load-carrying capacity of the gears, as well as wear behavior
Synchronous drives are especially well-suited for low-speed, high-torque applications. Their positive driving nature prevents potential slippage associated with V-belt drives, and even allows significantly greater torque carrying capability. Small pitch synchronous drives operating at speeds of 50 ft/min (0.25 m/s) or less are considered to be low-speed. Care should be taken in the drive selection process as stall and peak torques can sometimes be very high. While intermittent peak torques can often be carried by synchronous drives without special considerations, high cyclic peak torque loading should be carefully reviewed.
Implementing a power-on-demand concept based on variable speed drives allows for energy saving in any application that involves pumps or hydraulic systems. And when used in combination with an intelligent wiring and communication system, relevant machine data can also be easily recorded - the basis for comprehensive power management.
I'm not able to get a good connection between the pulley and shaft in my drive assembly. Could you explain the various ways of connecting a pulley to a shaft to prevent the pulley from slipping?
Worm, bevel, and parallel shaft gear units were installed at two breweries to provide the necessary process control.
News Items About Drive System Design
1 Hägglunds TADS Hydraulic Drive System Designed for Limited Space Applications (September 1, 2015)
Hägglunds recently introduced the TADS hydraulic drive system from Bosch Rexroth as a self-contained drive package for applications ...
2 Drive System Design Opens Test Facility on Improving Driveline Efficiency (April 10, 2018)
A new test facility has been developed in Michigan to help vehicle manufacturers and their suppliers increase the efficiency of vehicle...