Bearing Specialists Association

Articles About Bearing Specialists Association


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1 Industry News (June 2012)

The complete Industry News section from the June 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

2 The Best-Kept Secret in Green Technology (December 2009)

The Bearing Specialists Association explains the role of bearings in ensuring the efficient operation of machinery.

3 Counterfeit Consequences (February 2016)

Power Transmission Engineering is collaborating with the Bearing Specialists Association (BSA) on a special section within the magazine. Bearing Briefs will present updated reports on bearing topics for each issue in 2016. Complimentary access to all BSA Bearing and Industry Briefs is available on the BSA website at www.bsahome.org/tools. Additionally, our new Field Notes section on page 34 will feature field reports from BSA’s Certified Bearing Specialists.

4 BSA is the Forum that Keeps Bearing Companies Rolling (December 2008)

In today’s increasingly competitive global economy, industries and the companies that serve them are always looking for an edge. Price and quality being routinely accepted as a given, businesses—large and small—are always looking for a little help. For the worldwide bearing industry, that help exists in the form of the Bearing Specialists of America (BSA).

5 Bearing Specialists Celebrate Successful Convention (June 2014)

The Bearing Specialists Association held its annual convention at the Fairmont Resort in Scottsdale, Ariz. from May 3-7. More than 160 distributors and manufacturers attended the convention, which included committee meetings, business meetings, guest speakers, and social events.

6 Who Do You Trust? (June 2014)

At the recently held annual meeting of the Bearing Specialists Association, there was a lot of talk about online sales channels and how Internet retailers are changing the way industrial products are researched, sourced and purchased.

7 Industry News (February 2012)

The complete Industry News section from the February 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

8 Opening the Envelope on Bearing Vibration (September 2016)

Experienced operators can often tell if a machine is not working properly, on the basis that it does not ‘sound right.’ The same principle can be applied — using modern electronics — to identify the exact cause of the problem. Sensitive accelerometers can detect and analyze the vibrations from industrial equipment, highlighting problems such as misalignment or bearing imbalance. The technique is known as vibration analysis. It can identify bearing failure in the very early stages, when there is a microscopic defect on the raceway, for example. The problem is that the identifying signal is usually drowned out in all the other noise emanating from the machine.

9 Proper Handling of Bearings (September 2016)

Rolling-element bearings are high-precision components that need to be stored and handled carefully to perform as designed. Proper storage and handling of a bearing before, during and after installation is important because once debris enters a bearing, it reduces the life.

10 High-Temp Bearing Replacement (August 2016)

Richard (RJ) Seguin, CBS and technical sales representative at AMI Bearings, explains how his bearing expertise tripled the life of a customer’s bearings.

11 The Meaning of Life (August 2016)

End users and OEMs frequently specify "lubed-for-life" mounted bearings, thinking the lubed-for-life bearings will deliver the same life — without lubrication — as bearings that currently require periodic lubrication. The truth is it depends on many factors, and only a detailed review of the application and testing will provide a more accurate answer.

12 Proper Bearing Installation (June 2016)

Gregory (Keith) Boutwell, CBS and executive account manager at B&D Technologies (a division of B&D Industrial), explains how he used his bearings expertise to save a customer thousands of dollars through correct bearing installation.

13 Analyzing Wind Power (August 2016)

Wind is a form of solar energy. Winds are caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of the earth’s surface, and rotation of the earth. Wind Turbines convert the kinetic energy in wind into mechanical power.

14 Minimum Design Speed Considerations for Sleevoil Bearings for Industrial Fan Applications (September 2016)

Slow speed operation of fan systems within the air handling industry is generally performed due to two reasons: a coast down operation is required for hot (induced draft) fans to cool down before shutdown (often by using a turning gear), and operational efficiency improvements can be achieved during non-peak periods by slow speed operation using a VFD. In either case, when these fans are supported by hydrodynamic bearings, it is the oil film thickness developed from the bearing-shaft interaction that limits the minimum speed that can be maintained without causing premature wear and bearing failure. This paper will present a brief overview of lubrication theory and critical design parameters to achieve slow speed operation.

15 Ceramic Bearings for Water Processing, Water Filtration and Liquid Handling Applications (October 2016)

Bearings are an essential component in the majority of mechanical designs and equipment. It is important to consider the most effective materials when designing industrial machinery, especially in applications where water or other liquids are present. Many materials will be unable to overcome the challenges associated with operating in a wet or corrosive environment.

16 Guidelines for Bearing Seals (October 2016)

Equipment downtime and reduced component life are a few of the consequences — and potential costs — of using the wrong seals on many types of industrial equipment including pump bearing frames, electric motors, fans, pillow blocks, gearboxes and more. However, if correctly specified and installed, seals provide effective barriers that both retain lubricants as well as protect against water, corrosion, debris and other contaminants.

17 ISO 281:2007 - Caveat Emptor (October 2016)

I was invited by Tom Astrene of TLT to write a response to the July 2010 TLT article (Ref. 1). My rebuttal — “In Search of a Fatigue Limit: A Critique of ISO Standard 281:2007” — was published in Tribology and Lubrication Engineering, TLT, August 2010 edition (Ref. 10). While this article is also available online, I will attempt to summarize the essence of my response.

18 Special Modifications (October 2016)

Eddy Swiben, branch manager at BDI Canada, explains how to problem solve on an automatic cutter for tissue rolls. “This is a very major paper tissue manufacturer that sells paper tissue rolls all over America.” They roll paper tissue just like newsprint paper mills do. When the product is finally done and dried, they need to roll it on a light carton core 20-ft. long.

19 Analyzing the Poultry Process (June 2016)

Power Transmission Engineering is collaborating with the Bearing Specialists Association (BSA) on a special section within the magazine. Bearing Briefs will present updated reports on bearing topics for each issue in 2016. Complimentary access to all BSA Bearing and Industry Briefs is available on the BSA website at www.bsahome.org/tools.

20 Industry news (October 2016)

Latest News from around the industry.

21 A Model for Rolling Bearing Life with Surface and Subsurface Survival - Tribological Effects (September 2016)

Until now the estimation of rolling bearing life has been based on engineering models that consider an equivalent stress, originated beneath the contact surface, that is applied to the stressed volume of the rolling contact. Through the years, fatigue surface–originated failures, resulting from reduced lubrication or contamination, have been incorporated into the estimation of the bearing life by applying a penalty to the overall equivalent stress of the rolling contact. Due to this simplification, the accounting of some specific failure modes originated directly at the surface of the rolling contact can be challenging. In the present article, this issue is addressed by developing a general approach for rolling contact life in which the surfaceoriginated damage is explicitly formulated into the basic fatigue equations of the rolling contact. This is achieved by introducing a function to describe surface-originated failures and coupling it with the traditional, subsurface-originated fatigue risk of the rolling contact. The article presents the fundamental theory of the new model and its general behavior. The ability of the present general method to provide an account for the surface–subsurface competing fatigue mechanisms taking place in rolling bearings is discussed with reference to endurance testing data.

22 Cutting Downtime in Lumber Application (September 2016)

Ernest Head (Arnie), CBS and technical sales representative at Motion Canada helped save a lumber industry customer time and money by adapting a bearing solution for another client. Here’s how:

23 Preventing Downtime for Hanger Bearings (April 2016)

Dale Renner, CBS and sales representative at Bearing Headquarters Co., explains how his bearing expertise helped solve a customer’s problem and saved significant downtime and cost.

24 Preventing Roller Bearing Failure (December 2015)

I’m building a custom gearbox with 7075 T-6 spur gears, and I’m concerned that aluminum flakes will enter the races on the roller bearings (SKF 2307) and cause premature failure. So my question is — should I place an oil seal on the shaft first to protect the bearing — or is this an unfounded concern and I should mount the seal in the typical manner outside the bearing? Or both? Or go with a sealed bearing? I’m confused and could use your expertise, please.

25 Industry News (December 2015)

News from around the industry

26 Identifying Bearing Failure (February 2016)

Guy Gendron, certified bearing specialist and technical sales representative at Timken Canada L.P. explains how he used his bearing expertise to increase a customer’s productivity.

27 Beyond Bearings Basics (October 2015)

There are thousands of sizes and types of standard bearings. In many applications, specifying a standard bearing yields an effective result.

28 Recalibrated Equations for Determining Effect of Oil Filtration on Rolling Bearing Life (September 2015)

In 1991, Needelman and Zaretsky presented a set of empirically derived equations for bearing fatigue life (adjustment) factors (LFs) as a function of oil filter ratings.

29 Tales from the Bearings Blog (June 2015)

The following short articles first appeared on www.powertransmission.com. They are part of the ongoing series of hints, technical tidbits and inside knowledge presented by our resident blogger, Norm Parker. If you like what you see here and are interested in learning more, visit www.powertransmission.com/blog.

30 Setting Techniques for Tapered Roller Bearings (September 2015)

Tapered roller bearings can be set at initial machine assembly to any desired axial or radial clearance. This unique feature enables a designer to control bearings to meet anticipated application operating conditions, and thereby provide optimum bearing and system performance.

31 Industry News (February 2016)

Latest news from around the Industry

32 The SKF High-Capacity Cylindrical Roller Bearing (Spring 2007)

Th e ISO defi nition of a full- complement bearing states that the bearing does not have a cage. When that defi nition was written, it was not technically possible to have a full-complement bearing with a cage. But SKF’s new high-capacity cylindrical roller bearing combines the load-carrying capacity of a fullcomplement bearing with the benefi ts of a bearing with a cage (Fig.1).

33 In Transit (December 2016)

The average travel time to work in the United States is 25.4 minutes, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. This number is probably low if you factor in a traffic accident in New York City, light rain in Chicago or it's simply Tuesday in Los Angeles. It's safe to say 25.4 turns into 45 minutes in many areas of the country at seven o'clock in the morning.

34 What Lubrication Method Should I Use (April 2016)

in the performance and life of a rolling element bearing. Less than 10 percent of bearings reach their theoretical L10 life, and poor lubrication can be attributed to 80 percent of those that fall short. Ideally, a lubricant forms a film layer between moving components in a bearing, separating moving parts, minimizing friction and preventing wear between balls or rollers, raceways and retainers. Lubricants also protect metal surfaces from corrosion and moisture, dissipate heat and can even prevent the ingress of contaminants.

35 He Shoots, He Scores! (April 2016)

There’s nothing quite as satisfying as scoring a goal. Here at Power Transmission Engineering, our goal is to provide you with as much relevant educational and technical material as possible, and every issue we strive to cover the subjects of power transmission and motion control from as many different angles as possible, so that no matter your job title, and no matter your industry, if gears, bearings, motors and related components are important to you, we’ve got you covered.

36 Load Ratings & Bearing Life (March 2016)

Power Transmission Engineering is collaborating with the Bearing Specialists Association (BSA) on a special section within the magazine. Bearing Briefs will present updated reports on bearing topics for each issue in 2016. Complimentary access to all BSA Bearing and Industry Briefs is available on the BSA website at www.bsahome.org/tools.

37 Bearings for High Temperatures (Fall 2007)

When rolling element or sleeve bearings operate under extreme conditions, it’s more important than ever to follow proper lubrication selection and maintenance procedures to maximize eff ective life and effi cient performance.

38 Troubleshooting Through Reverse Engineering (March 2016)

Michael Odom, certified bearing specialist and customer sales and service at Applied Industrial Technologies, explains how he used his bearing expertise to save a customer both money and downtime.

39 Analyzing the Cement Process (April 2016)

The manufacturing process begins in a limestone quarry. Mining methods such as ripping, dozing, drilling and blasting are commonly employed. Limestone provides the first essential component, calcium, for the anufacture of cement. Materials are transported to the crushing plant for further size reduction. Common methods of transport are trucks, loaders and belt conveyors.

40 Bearing the Brunt of Earthquakes (December 2016)

America suffers $4.4 billion in losses due to earthquakes every year. While that's a drop in the bucket for our $16 trillion plus GDP, it's still a substantial amount of money, and some people are working to lessen those losses. One group is Earthquake Protection Systems (EPS), a company that is designing bearings to better protect buildings from earthquake damage.

41 Thrust Cone Bearings Provide Increased Efficiency for Helical Gear Units at Moderate Speed Levels (June 2018)

Thrust cone bearings are an elegant option to handle the axial forces generated by the torque transmission in helical-toothed gear stages. They have proven as an efficient and reliable bearing concept for integrally geared compressors but are nearly unknown in other fields of gearbox engineering. The presented investigations consider three aspects which appear relevant to extend the field of possible applications for thrust cones towards gearboxes constructed with roller bearings.

42 U.S. Wind Power Blowing Hot as New Installations Flourish (October 2017)

A look at recent installations, plus interviews with some wind industry insiders.

43 MPTA Remains a Viable Resource for Power Transmission Industry (April 2008)

The Mechanical Power Transmission Association was founded in 1933 as the Multiple V-Belt Drive and Mechanical Power Transmission Association.

44 Machine Parts No Longer in Production (June 2018)

Good machinery can last a lifetime. But, replacement parts for older equipment may be near impossible to find. So, what do you do when you're looking to replace hard-to-find bearings and related parts for older machines?

45 Linear Bearing CAD Models and More On the Fly (April 2018)

Here's what one supplier is doing to take advantage of the mobile phone in your pocket.

46 Buyer Beware (April 2018)

No one likes paying too much for anything. Everyone wants to get a better deal. That's why you shop around before buying a new car. That's why you look at sale advertisements before buying a new refrigerator or big screen tv. The bigger the purchase, the more you want to compare prices.

47 Bogus Bearings Still on a Roll (April 2018)

Counterfeits continue to vex big-name suppliers

48 Industry News (October 2011)

The complete Industry News section from the October 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

49 Industry News (August 2014)

The complete Industry News section from the August 2014 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

50 Copper in Motor Repair Facilities (March 2017)

Three electric motor repair facilities share best practices for utilizing copper in motor repair, and recommending new motors to replace older, less-efficient motors

51 Emerging Motor Technologies (February 2018)

Copper's continuing role in energy-efficient motor development.

52 Motor Management Best Practices Part 3 (February 2016)

This three-part series on motor management best practices focuses on the importance of instituting a motor management plan as a necessity in effectively administering the electric motors in a facility. The goal of a motor management plan is to take advantage of opportunities for energy savings and increased productivity using energy efficient, reliable motors such as NEMA Premium efficiency motors, herein referred to as “premium efficiency” motors.

53 Motor Management - Best Practices (December 2015)

Energy costs and downtime can be greatly reduced by instituting a motor management plan. Part II of this three-part series specifically addresses the establishment of a motor failure policy and the development of purchasing specifications. Part I addressed the general aspects of a motor management plan, including the first steps of creating a motor inventory and guidelines for motor repair and replacement. Part III will examine motor repair specifications as well as preventive and predictive maintenance.

54 INDUSTRY NEWS (March 2015)

News From the Industry

55 Motor Management - Best Practices (October 2015)

Reducing losses and increasing profits by instituting a motor management plan is what this series of articles is all about. Here in Part I, we discuss how to create a motor inventory and establish repair-or-replace motor guidelines. Subsequent topics in this three-part series will address (Part II) motor failure policies and purchasing specifications, and (Part III) repair specifications and preventive and predictive maintenance, respectively.

56 Progress in Rolling Bearing Technology for Refrigerant Compressors (December 2017)

Various surface treatment and bearing technology solutions are explored to solve challenging lubrication regimes.

57 CNC System Upgrades (December 2017)

Automated production of large objects such as auto body prototypes, boat hulls and surfboards traditionally requires computerized numerical control (CNC) systems costing nearly a million dollars. Thomson Cuts Costs and Production Time for Autoscale Inc.

58 Bearing Good News (April 2017)

This issue's focus on bearings includes a number of important and informative articles about one of the most key components in any machine design.

59 Product News (April 2017)

Clutches and Brakes take center stage in the April 2017 edition of Product News.

60 Meet Norm Parker - Bearings Blogger (April 2017)

In case you missed them, following are three recent blog postings by our popular PTE bearings blogger - Norm Parker. We also felt that, should you not be a blog follower, this would be a good way to introduce you to Norm's bearings wisdom. Parker is currently the global senior specialist/roller bearings at Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA).

61 A Major Step Forward in Life Modeling (March 2017)

The SKF Generalized Bearing Life Model is (GBLM) an innovative new bearing rating life model that is designed to help engineers calculate bearing rating life in a more realistic manner. The new model is a major step forward for the industry and will play an important role in enabling OEMs and end users to better match bearings and applications, resulting in improved machine life and reduced operating costs.

62 Defining and Predicting Housing Strength for Mounted Bearings (February 2017)

Design engineers across industries rely on pillow block bearings for a variety of tough and unconventional applications. Having access to data that backs housing strength performance claims is an integral part of choosing the right bearing to keep operations running optimally. What design considerations must be made when the application demands a pillow block installation on a non-horizontal orientation? What happens when bearing load is not applied through the base of the unit? Timken answers these questions with physical testing, advanced modeling and real-world experience to facilitate the selection of pillow block bearings for specific applications.

63 Eight Reasons to Use Air Bearings Over Mechanical Bearings (December 2016)

Mechanical guiding systems, such as crossedroller bearings, work well for most motion control applications; however, when precision, angular repeatability, and geometric performance (runout, straightness) are critical or where submicron bearing rumble is problematic, air bearings are recommended. An air-bearing stage is a rotary or linear positioner that floats on a cushion of air, using one of several preload mechanisms, nearly eliminating mechanical contact and thus wear, friction, and hysteresis effects. Here are eight reasons why an air-bearing stage might be the right choice for your application:

64 The Path to Smarter Bearings (June 2015)

At Hannover Messe, Power Transmission Engineering had the opportunity to sit down with Stefan Hantke, president of the Industrial North America division of Schaeffler USA, to discuss the current stateof- the-art in bearings manufacturing, the trends in industrial bearings and the current state of U.S. manufacturing. (In the meantime Stefan Hantke has taken over responsibility for the global sales activities of Schaeffler Industrial)

65 The Hidden Cost of Incomplete Hydrodynamic Bearing Maintenance (April 2017)

Reliability and maintenance engineers can improve uptime and save money on both long-term maintenance and downtime costs by properly diagnosing and correcting bearing vibration issues when they exceed their acceptable limits. This requires inspecting the housing as well as the liner for wear, and replacing them as a pair when the housing is worn, so that wear-in between the mating surfaces can occur.

66 Performance Testing of Composite Bearing Materials for Large Hydraulic Cylinders (April 2017)

Large hydraulic cylinders (LHCs) are integral components in the functioning of large machines in mechanically demanding, corrosive and abrasive environments, such as offshore drilling rigs. The materials utilized in these largescale hydraulic systems must deliver reliable performance throughout their expected lifecycle.

67 Guide to Proper Bearing Lubricating Practices (October 2017)

Understanding proper bearing lubrication procedures is critical to ensuring long-term, trouble-free performance. Klüber Lubrication has prepared this explanation as a general guide.

68 The Long and Short of It (October 2017)

10,000 Year Clock Needs Bearings that Run for 350 Million Cycles.

69 Product News (September 2017)

The complete Product News section from the September 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

70 Rolling Bearing Service Life Based on Probable Cause for Removal - A Tutorial (August 2017)

A bearing service life prediction methodology and tutorial indexed to eight probable causes for bearing failure and removal are presented - including fatigue. Bearing life is probabilistic and not deterministic. Bearing manufacturers' catalogue (L10) bearing life is based on rolling-element fatigue failure, at which time 90% of a population of bearings can be reasonably expected to survive, and 10% to fail by fatigue. However, approximately 95% of all bearings are removed for cause before reaching their L10 life. A bearing failure can be defined as when the bearing is no longer fit for its intended purpose. For a single bearing, you can only predict the probability of a failure occurring at a designated time - but not the actual time to failure.

71 Getting to Know Your Bearing (August 2017)

Software Design, Analysis and Calculation Tools Help Solve Today's Engineering Challenges

72 Software Bits (August 2017)

The latest updates in software for bearing design.

73 Bearing Lubricant Solution (December 2016)

A Chicago-area bakery was replacing the tray support bearings in its ovens on a reactionary basis. Their weekly inspection cycle was resulting in two mechanics spending an average of 20 labor hours per week to replace failed bearings. The premature bearing failures were caused by a combination of the high heat and humidity in the ovens, resulting in lubrication failure and contamination. When BDI was asked to recommend a solution, the bakery was averaging one month of bearing life in this application.

74 Four-Point Bearings Do Triple Duty While Saving Space (March 2015)

A four-point contact ball bearing makes it easy to simplify machine designs that combine radial, thrust and moment loads, because it can handle all three simultaneously. They are primarily used for slow-to-moderate-speed applications, or where oscillatory movement is predominant.

75 A Recipe for Quality Big Bearings (June 2010)

Many power transmission components require a certain level of customization for each individual project. The big bearing market is no exception. Construction, mining, steel, marine and wind applications aren’t exactly areas where customers buy bearings in bulk.

76 Energy Efficiency by Using Innovative Bearing Solutions (August 2010)

Based on simulation methods and calculation tools developed by the Schaeffler Group and presented in the first part of this paper, three approaches regarding increased efficiency based on rolling bearings are presented.

77 Not All Thin-Section Bearings Are Created Equal (February 2011)

American Bearing Manufacturers Association (ABMA) Standard 9 and ISO 281 give equations for calculating the basic dynamic radial load rating for ball bearings. These equations are based on a number of assumptions, many of which are not valid for thin-section bearings. (Thin-section bearings are described in ABMA standard 26.2.) Nevertheless, many thin-section bearing catalogs report load ratings based on these equations. Kaydon has developed a new method for calculating the dynamic radial load rating for thin-section ball bearings. The new method uses the contact stress and the number of stress-cycles-per-revolution to calculate the capacity. The new numbers are based on five years of actual test results. These equations can also be used to calculate the dynamic radial load rating for four-point contact ball bearings, which are not covered in ABMA standard 9 or ISO 281.

78 Linear Motion Q&A: Customized Machinery Built with Off-the-Shelf Components (April 2010)

This Q&A session with various experts at Thomson Linear Systems covers linear slides & stages, clutches & brakes, bearings and actuators.

79 Bogus Bearings Beat Price and Lead Time, But at What Cost (April 2010)

When your $100 “Rolex” falls apart on your wrist, well, what did you expect? But when bogus bearings find their way into safety-sensitive applications, lives are at stake.

80 Improving Equipment Uptime - Composite Seals Meet the Challenge (October 2009)

In an industrial application, equipment uptime is vital for on-time performance and profitability. The rotating members of industrial machines are subject to the highest degree of wear and are more susceptible to failure than non-moving parts. Bearing surfaces are the most critical and often the most expensive portion of the rotary assembly; it is imperative to protect these components. The primary protector of these components is the industrial seal.

81 Selecting the Right Precision Ball Material for Aggressive Environments (February 2010)

This article will examine the major materials used to enhance balls to resist aggressive environments and help in selecting the right one.

82 Industry News (April 2011)

The complete Industry News section from the April 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

83 Product News (June 2011)

The complete Product News section from the June 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.

84 University Improves Sustainability of HVAC Motors in Platinum LEED Building (April 2012)

A new preventive maintenance program at a leading New England Ivy League university demonstrates how the push for more sustainable "green" building management has led to a growing awareness of a chronic, widespread problem with HVAC motors—electrical bearing damage and failure.

85 Gearbox Bearing Service Life: A Matter of Mastering Many Design Parameters (April 2012)

The availability of high-strength shaft materials, in combination with bearings with high carrying capacity, allows use of slimmer shafts. However, the modulus of elasticity remains the same, so seat design for bearings and gears must be given close attention.

86 The Quick Fix - Rexnord Solves Bearing Installation and Removal Challenges (June 2012)

At a Midwestern producer of tubular steel products, measures taken to counteract the effects of impact on a quench tank roll made it difficult to remove and replace the conventional pillow block bearings that support the roll’s shaft.

87 Application of Ceramics to NU-Type Cylindrical Roller Bearings for Machine Tool Main Spindles (December 2011)

Bearings used to support main spindles on machine tools must be capable of higher speed and greater rigidity. This is true in that any main spindle that turns together with a tool or work piece mounted onto it is one of the critical machine tool components that directly affects machining efficiency and accuracy of the machine tool; and, the bearings that support the main spindle are the most critical machine elements on the machine tool.

88 PT Extras (April 2013)

The latest power transmission videos, articles and updates from online.

89 Non-Metallic Bearings - An Alternative Worth Considering (June 2011)

This article takes a look at alternative-material, non-metal bearings, and it turns out the first bearings of that type - wood, in this case, were the norm - not an alternative.

90 Radial Play (Internal Clearance in Ball Bearings) (August 2011)

At first glance, ball bearings are relatively simple mechanisms. However, an analysis of their internal geometries reveals that they are quite complex. For example, the ball to raceway conformity, the radial play, and the number of balls all impact the ability of a ball bearing to support loads under a variety of conditions.

91 Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications (August 2009)

Nitinol 60 (60NiTi), an intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy containing 60 wt % nickel and 40 wt % titanium, is shown to be a promising material for oil-lubricated, rolling and sliding contact applications such as bearings and gears.

92 Smart Bearings are in Control--But Full Potential Remains Untapped (June 2009)

Bearings with integrated sensors are used in a wide variety of applications, but many potential industrial uses are not yet implemented.

93 Rolling Bearing Steels - A Technical and Historical Perspective, Part 2 (April 2013)

This paper is part 2 of 2 in a series that summarizes the chemical, metallurgical and physical aspects of bearing steels and their effect on rolling bearing life and reliability.

94 Motion Drive and Automation at Hannover 2013 (April 2013)

Power Transmission and control companies will be on hand during Hannover Messe 2013 to display the latest technology offerings in key product categories including roller bearings, gear wheels, pumps, motors, transmissions, drive system components, clutches and braking systems.

95 Grip Tight Done Right (February 2008)

Baldor bearings make the grade with Sapphire Recovery and Twin City Fan.

96 Boilermakers Announce Bearing Technology Breakthrough (June 2013)

Student research project at Purdue could revolutionize predictive bearing failure.

97 Rolling-Element Bearing Analysis (June 2013)

This article describes how more sophisticated modeling techniques allow the latest software to identify design issues with bearings, shafts, gears and complicated multi-body systems.

98 Power Loss and Axial Load Carrying Capacity of Radial Cylindrical Roller Bearings (June 2013)

This paper is intended to enlarge the application range of radial cylindrical roller bearings by means of a more precise determination of thrust load capacity and more cost-effective design.

99 Bearing Associations Help Demystify Bearings Buys (June 2013)

The ABMA, BSA and PTDA help keep things rolling.

100 Capacity--And the Lack of It--Rules (February 2008)

U.S. wind turbine growth puts a new spin on bearing manufacture.

101 Bearing Lubrication Under Extreme Conditions, Part II (February 2008)

Rolling element or sleeve bearings often are required to operate under extreme conditions. In these instances, it is more important than ever to follow proper lubrication selection and maintenance procedures to maximize effective life and efficient performance.

102 High-Capacity Bearings Carry the Load for Chinese Gearbox Manufacturer (December 2008)

Th e signing of a contract for more than 5,000 sets of SKF’s latest high-capacity cylindrical roller bearings (HCCRB) for wind turbines will impart added load-carrying capacity, more reliability and longer life to the Nanjing Gear Company’s (NGC) line of gearboxes for wind generation applications.

103 The Green Revolution - A Global Win-Win (February 2009)

Green technology is more than changing a couple of light bulbs or reducing waste. In 2009, the concept is relevant in every facet of manufacturing as companies make a greater push towards energy efficiency and sustainability. In the power transmission and motion control fields, this technology has been integrated into the daily routine, both as an environmentally friendly business venture and a way to offer green products to customers. It’s apparent that the revitalization of manufacturing, both here and abroad, will center on energy technology.

104 Bearing Repair Provides Valuable Alternative To Bearing Replacement for Heavy Industries (August 2008)

When a bearing is damaged, it is often removed from service and replaced before it reaches its full, useful and economical life. Advancements in bearing design, materials, bearing maintenance and repair methods have greatly improved the potential for and popularity of bearing repair as an effective way to extend the life of the bearing.

105 Saltwater Solutions from igus (April 2008)

igus bearings solve undersea issues for the marine vehicle industry.

106 Improved Fuel and Energy Efficiency Through Optimized Bearing Design and Selection (February 2008)

Today, better fuel economy is a main objective in the automotive development process. It remains top-of-mind with the auto industry and consumers because of costs and environmental impacts. Because the industry’s average fuel-economy standard is required to increase by 40 percent by 2020, manufacturers and engineers are working to develop fuel-efficient, environmentally friendly and reliable designs for vehicles.

107 Industry News (February 2008)

The complete Industry News section from the February 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering

108 Zero Friction Solution (June 2012)

Air bearings provide a more-precise view of print head variations.

109 Rolling Bearings in High-Speed Passenger Traffic (June 2012)

Passenger transport today moves significantly faster than ever before, often operating on separate tracks especially designed for high-speed trains. Accordingly, high-speed rolling bearings are very important components in the bogies of trains today. Maximum train speeds currently reach 380 km/h (236 mph) in the latest high-speed applications - 80% higher than in the earlier days of high-speed traffic. This paper presents two application examples of modern, high-speed traffic, together with some typical bearing arrangements and housings. It provides insight regarding measures taken in the bearing industry to meet the requirements of contemporary, high-speed traffic, and it cites important standards and regulations applicable for - but not restricted to - European applications. To be precise, the focus here is on journal bearings; information on traction motor bearings, transmission bearings and housings is included, but described in less detail.

110 Choosing the Right Grade - Specifying Stainless Bearing Steel (August 2014)

A reader asks: I've determined that a stainless steel bearing is the best option for my application. I'm being asked to specify the grade of stainless steel in my product design. I'm not sure which grade to select and specify. Can you help?

111 Dude - Where's My Preload (August 2014)

Many of us have been there; the bearings had the correct preload. You know it, you were there, and you personally saw the measurements. Now, the testing is done and the preload is gone. Not a little gone, not sort of gone - gone, gone. Finger pointing ensues. Suppliers are dragged in by their wrinkly Polo collars. You know the drill. Losing preload in a tapered roller bearing (TRB) system over the life of your application can be a troublesome problem, particularly for gear sets that are prone to noise or severe applications that rely on a very rigid and stable system.

112 PT Extras (September 2014)

Videos, tweets, blog posts and other online exclusive from PTE and mechanical power transmission component suppliers.

113 Adjusting Tapered Roller Bearings (June 2014)

What are the best methods to adjust tapered roller bearings?

114 Gear Lubrication: Long-Term Protection for Wind Turbines (April 2014)

The chemical and physical properties of gear oils may change, depending - more or less - upon their formulation and the environmental conditions under which they are used. This is why - after three years of use in a wind turbine - a gear oil was examined to determine if indeed changes were evident and if the protection of the gears and rolling bearings still met the same requirements as would be expected of fresh oil. Our findings revealed that the existing gear oil - as well as its ability to protect the gears and rolling bearings - had degraded very little compared to fresh oil.

115 Investigations of Bearing Failures Associated with White Etching Areas (WEAs) in Wind Turbine Gearboxes (March 2014)

A critical problem for wind turbine gearboxes is failure of rolling element bearings where axial cracks form on the inner rings. This article presents field experience from operating wind turbines that compares the performance of through-hardened and carburized materials. It reveals that through-hardened bearings develop WEA/WECs and fail with axial cracks, whereas carburized bearings do not. The field experience further shows that a carburized bearing with a core having low carbon content, high nickel content, greater compressive residual stresses, and a higher amount of retained austenite provides higher fracture resistance and makes carburized bearings more durable than through-hardened bearings in the wind turbine environment.

116 Lower Service Life Plus Less Waste Equals Lower Cost (April 2014)

Bearings that show wear may not always need to be replaced. Depending on the degree and type of wear, they may be candidates for reconditioning, a process that restores bearings to like-new specifications and performance - at an average 50 to 60 percent of the cost of replacement.

117 TLC Still Needed for New Axles (September 2014)

A reader asks: I have heard that new axles no longer need a break-in period. True or false?

118 Bearing Basics (October 2014)

BEARINGS BASICS Q&A: IN CASE YOU DIDN’T KNOW…

119 Desktop Engineering - How to Calculate Dynamic and Static Load Ratings (February 2015)

When comparing bearing suppliers, engineers are often left with few options other than to compare dynamic load ratings and corresponding life calculations. Of course, we can look at steel and manufacturing quality; but if we are comparing sources of similar quality, those items may not provide a large contrast. It often surprises people to learn that bearing capacities are calculated values, not tested values. Lately, however, a trend is emerging for bearing suppliers to increase their ratings for higher performance bearings that have premium features such as higher quality steel and specilaized heat treatment. Bearing companies are under intense competitive pressure to make every feature add to the dynamic capacity of their bearings because it is very well understood that an increase in capacity adds to the bottom line.

120 The Modified Life Rating of Rolling Bearings: A Criterion for Gearbox Design and Reliability Optimization (March 2015)

Engineers typically learn that the bearing L10 life can be estimated using the so called “C/P method” — or the “basic rating life” of the bearing, a method rooted in the 1940s. Major developments have since led to the “modified rating life,” released in ISO 281:2007, which includes the aiso life modification factor. In this paper a succession of equations used for bearing life ratings are reviewed, and current bearing life rating practices are discussed in detail. It is shown that — despite the introduction more than 30 years ago of the adjustment factor of the basic rating life, and the standardization in 2007 of the aiso modification factor — use of these improved calculation methods are not practiced by all engineers. Indeed — many continue referring to the old model as a way of seeking compliance with existing, established practices.

121 Plastic Bearings Have Staying Power (April 2015)

During the past three decades there has been an evolution in the advancement and use of highly engineered plastics in bearing applications.

122 Finite Element Evaluation of Bearing Instrumentation Method (December 2014)

This paper presents an evaluation of measurements being taken on a 750 kW wind turbine gearbox being tested by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). High-speed stage gears and bearings have been identified as critical components of the gearbox; during gearbox testing, these components were instrumented and tests were developed to evaluate loads on high-speed tapered roller bearings (TRBs). In this paper an advanced finite element-based contact modeling procedure has been applied to model the high-speed stage with the bearings fully modeled in order to evaluate strain levels. A major conclusion is that the strains of the slotted grooves are at such a level that they have acceptable signal-to-noise levels. This was verified by the results of the initial experiments presented here.

123 Pre-Tension Thrust Bearings (December 2014)

What is the recommended method of gripping a spinning shaft (with up to 130 hp of rotational energy) to install pre-tension thrust bearings and conventional thrust bearings (load = hundreds of pounds) when the shaft cannot have any high points because it must pass through an area of tight clearances to assemble? Will snap rings still withstand the harsh vibration of this environment?

124 Premature Bearing Failures in Wind Gearboxes and White Etching Cracks (October 2014)

Wind turbine gearboxes are subjected to a wide variety of operating conditions, some of which may push the bearings beyond their limits. Damage may be done to the bearings, resulting in a specific premature failure mode known as white etching cracks (WEC), sometimes called brittle, short-life, early, abnormal or white structured flaking (WSF). Measures to make the bearings more robust in these operating conditions are discussed in this article.

125 Made in China: A GM Engineer's First-Hand Perspective on the Chinese Roller Bearing Industry (October 2014)

Believe me when I tell you that — as a domestic automotive engineer — I bleed U.S. manufacturing. I have never lived more than 50 miles from Detroit,

126 Study of Multiple-Point Oil-Jet Lubrication of High-Speed Ball Bearings (June 2014)

The air-oil, two-phase flow inside the multiple-point, oil-jet lubrication ball bearing was studied based on CFD (computational fluid dynamics) theory and technique, and compared with single-point, oil-jet lubrication. The results indicate that the air-oil distribution inside the bearing with multiple-point, oil-jet lubrication is more uniform than single-point injection.

127 Tapered Roller Bearing Application Guide (June 2014)

This article summarizes some common hurdles, issues and questions encountered by the newer and casual users of tapered roller bearings.

128 The Skating Life (October 2012)

SMB Bearing Offers Unique Solutions for NorthwoodsFB finger-size skateboards.

129 Calculating Inner Race Diameter (December 2012)

In this Ask the Expert article, Hans Wendeberg from SKF discusses some of the things you need to know when calculating bearing diameters.

130 Cruising with Curiosity (December 2012)

Power Transmission Components from Forest City Gear, Kaydon Bearings and Maxon Motors help power NASA's Curiosity Mars Rover.

131 Have a Pump, Motor, Generator, Turbine, Compressor or Gearbox - There is a Bearing for That! (October 2012)

Waukesha Bearings is known internationally for its capabilities, technology, size and application experience in the rotating (turbo) equipment industry. Following is a brief selection guide intended to assist engineers, specifiers, integrators and others in choosing the right bearing—and bearing technology—for the application.

132 Bearing Protection Needed if Inverter-Duty Motors Are to Live up to their Name (August 2012)

All major manufacturers of 3-phase AC induction motors offer "inverter-duty" or "inverter-ready” models, but while these motors have inverter-rated insulation to protect the windings, the bearings--their most vulnerable parts--are too often ignored.

133 Sleeve Bearings or Tilting Pad Bearings - Ask the Expert (August 2012)

A reader asks whether sleeve bearings can take the place of more expensive tilting pad bearings in a high-speed compressor application.

134 Wear-Resistant Bearings (August 2012)

More than a decade of intensive research and development has resulted in two new technologies that, when used in combination, expand the performance of rolling element bearings well beyond previous limits.

135 Rolling Bearing Steels - A Technical and Historical Perspective - Part 1 (February 2013)

This paper summarizes the chemical, metallurgical and physical aspects of bearing steels and their effect on rolling bearing life and reliability.

136 Grease Lubrication Mechanisms in Rolling Bearing Systems (October 2013)

Grease lubrication has clear advantages over oil lubrication: Grease does not leak easily; it has sealing properties; and it protects bearing surfaces from corrosion. Its disadvantages are grease-life limitations and a limited cooling ability. Moreover, in some applications there is a risk of grease starvation, which leads to reduced lubricating films. However, if the right grease, sealing system and/or lubrication system are chosen, then grease lubrication offers clear benefits. This article summarizes aspects of grease lubrication mechanisms in rolling bearings.

137 Fluid Power Free-for-All (February 2014)

IFPE offers the right balance of technology and education.

138 Best Practices for Bearing Protection (June 2014)

For either brand-new motors or those already in service, "best practices" means that informed technicians can make use of the latest diagnostic techniques (vibration analysis, thermography, shaft-voltage testing, etc.) to prevent electrical bearing damage -- either at the very beginning or very quickly thereafter. If done correctly, the work need only be done once.

139 All for One, One for All (February 2014)

Collaboration moves bearing modeling and simulation software forward

140 Should You Pay a Premium for a Mounted Ball Bearing (December 2013)

Mounted ball bearings are everywhere in industrial applications. They serve critical roles in keeping a manufacturing operation running smoothly and in ensuring that equipment functions properly and reliably. So why might it be advisable to spend significantly more for a dimensionally comparable bearing from one supplier versus another?

141 Napoleon Engineering Services: Rigged for Success (December 2013)

For design engineers and purchasing agents alike, bearings can sometimes be like family. Oh, you know - can't live with 'em, can’t live without 'em.

142 How To Use a Hand-Held Micrometer to Measure Miniature and Instrument Ball Bearings (December 2013)

For the most accurate measurements, miniature and instrument ball bearing dimensions should be measured with a calibrated air gauge. A good second option is a calibrated optical comparator. On occasion, it may be necessary to use a calibrated, hand-held micrometer to double-check a measurement or for simple verification while working in the field.

143 The True Cost of Bearing Lubrication (June 2015)

Machine and equipment manufacturers today are feeling more pressure than ever to reduce costs without sacrificing machine performance — a balancing act difficult to achieve. OEMs often overlook a simple solution that can have a positive, long-term impact on profitability for themselves and their customers, i.e. — the elimination of bearing lubricant.