ATI Industrial Automation
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Automate 2017 (April 3-6) will showcase the full spectrum of automation technologies and solutions, from traditional industrial applications to cutting edge new technologies.
The complete Industry News section from the June 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
A nose-in-the-tent peek at the booths featuring mechanical motion components.
The complete Product News section from the December 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
With the addition of Industrial Automation North America (IANA) as well as Motion, Drive & Automation North America(MDA NA), IMTS 2014 has greatly expanded its range of manufacturing technology services. These co-located shows complement the metalworking solutions found at IMTS by bringing in key suppliers from around the world.
The complete Product News section from the December 2010 issue of Power Transmission Engineering
News from around the Industry
Latest news from around the Industry
If there are two things that are in tight supply in the industry, it's time and talent. Manufacturers are always pressured to do more faster, and the industry is producing fewer experts to help them do it, so the industry's had to get crafty and find what time-cutting procedures they can.
Though the original definition of mechatronics derived from the Yasakawa Electric Company in the late 1960s (the company won trademark rights for the term in 1973), the word has remarkably evolved.
One of the best things about being a journalist — whether for example it be reporting on manufacturing, politics, show business, or anything else — is being paid to “go to school” and learning about any number of things that you were perhaps ignorant of at the outset.
News about recent products in the Industry
The complete Product News section from the August 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering
Maximizing packaging machine productivity and performance is imperative to success and is driving OEMs to adopt and invest in the latest technologies that can meet their customers’ challenges. At the forefront of these performance-driven technologies is an integrated control system—or programmable automation controller (PAC)—and latest-generation motion solutions.
"For your safety, please keep your hands, arms and legs inside the vehicle at all times."
This special product news section takes a look at the latest in motion control products.
The latest power transmission videos, articles and updates from online.
The Role of Coupling Technology in Current Developments in Industry
News from around the industry.
A discussion of the basics in DC drives, DC motors, AC drives, AC motors and synchronous motors.
The complete Product News section from the February 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Product News section from the March 2014 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Product News section from the March 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Industry News section from the August 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
News about the most recent products to hit the market.
PERSONNEL CHANGES AND EXPANSION HIGHLIGHT CICERO, ILLINOIS GEAR MANUFACTURER
Latest News from around the Industry
News from around the Industry
The complete Product News section from the December 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
With Pack Expo Las Vegas around the corner, we took a look at the state of the packaging industry today to see what you can expect at the show. The answer is more automation.
The complete Product News section from the December 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering, featuring the latest from SKF, R+W, Brecoflex, Nexen, GÃ¼del, Renold Gears, Hansford Sensors, Ogura Industrial, Igus, Destaco, RÃ¶hm and Iwis.
News from around the industry
The complete product news section from the December 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Product News section from the April 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete product news section from the October 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering (PTE).
Sound business model increases opportunities for Misumi USA Inc.
Latest information about upcoming products.
Latest Product News
The complete product news section from the June 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
For a 5-megawatt wind turbine prototype, aerodyn employs the latest control and software technologies, including a comprehensive PC-based control solution and the new modular TwinCAT Wind Framework. The TwinCAT Wind Framework features the latest software engineering and Big Data applications to extend current Industry 4.0 concepts to the wind energy industry. The modular software supports, for example, the direct provision of sensor data to the operator’s database, and in general enables the easy adaption of the wind turbine operation management to future requirements.
The complete Product News section from the April 2009 issue of Power Transmission Engineering magazine.
How to optimize performance and sustainable production through strategic planning, informed analysis and automation and control technology.
The complete Product News section from the August 2010 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Product News section from the February 2010 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
“[Motion, Drive & Automation] at Hannover Messe is the place where the future is determined.”
Robotics and other advanced automation technology systems are viewed as a looming threat to some in the plant maintenance field. Although there is a constant battle for some workers to remain useful while machines are continuously fulfilling more roles on the plant floor, there are those who in turn have found a better use of their newly freed time.
Power Transmission Engineering is collaborating with the Bearing Specialists Association (BSA) on a special section within the magazine. Bearing Briefs will present updated reports on bearing topics for each issue in 2016. Complimentary access to all BSA Bearing and Industry Briefs is available on the BSA website at www.bsahome.org/tools.
A Chicago-area bakery was replacing the tray support bearings in its ovens on a reactionary basis. Their weekly inspection cycle was resulting in two mechanics spending an average of 20 labor hours per week to replace failed bearings. The premature bearing failures were caused by a combination of the high heat and humidity in the ovens, resulting in lubrication failure and contamination. When BDI was asked to recommend a solution, the bakery was averaging one month of bearing life in this application.
Action Challenge Introduces Students to Fluid Power Industry in the latest STEM educational effort from the National Fluid Power Association.
In a recent reader survey, you told us you wanted to see more specific examples of mechanical power transmission products and how they’re designed, upgraded, maintained and used in a wide variety of industries. In the business, we call that type of article an “application story,” and in this issue we’ve answered the call with several application stories that show how smart choices are being made about motion components in a wide variety of industries.
The complete Industry News section from the February 2017 issue of PTE.
This three-part series on motor management best practices focuses on the importance of instituting a motor management plan as a necessity in effectively administering the electric motors in a facility. The goal of a motor management plan is to take advantage of opportunities for energy savings and increased productivity using energy efficient, reliable motors such as NEMA Premium efficiency motors, herein referred to as “premium efficiency” motors.
Modeling and simulation is a key driver of innovation. Whether it’s general manufacturing, consumer goods or life sciences, the ability to realistically model and simulate the response of parts, sub-systems and complete assemblies to increase accuracy and repeatability is vital in today’s analytical world.
news froma round the Industry
News on the latest products from around the industry.
Experienced operators can often tell if a machine is not working properly, on the basis that it does not ‘sound right.’ The same principle can be applied — using modern electronics — to identify the exact cause of the problem. Sensitive accelerometers can detect and analyze the vibrations from industrial equipment, highlighting problems such as misalignment or bearing imbalance. The technique is known as vibration analysis. It can identify bearing failure in the very early stages, when there is a microscopic defect on the raceway, for example. The problem is that the identifying signal is usually drowned out in all the other noise emanating from the machine.
End users and OEMs frequently specify "lubed-for-life" mounted bearings, thinking the lubed-for-life bearings will deliver the same life — without lubrication — as bearings that currently require periodic lubrication. The truth is it depends on many factors, and only a detailed review of the application and testing will provide a more accurate answer.
Until now the estimation of rolling bearing life has been based on engineering models that consider an equivalent stress, originated beneath the contact surface, that is applied to the stressed volume of the rolling contact. Through the years, fatigue surface–originated failures, resulting from reduced lubrication or contamination, have been incorporated into the estimation of the bearing life by applying a penalty to the overall equivalent stress of the rolling contact. Due to this simplification, the accounting of some specific failure modes originated directly at the surface of the rolling contact can be challenging. In the present article, this issue is addressed by developing a general approach for rolling contact life in which the surfaceoriginated damage is explicitly formulated into the basic fatigue equations of the rolling contact. This is achieved by introducing a function to describe surface-originated failures and coupling it with the traditional, subsurface-originated fatigue risk of the rolling contact. The article presents the fundamental theory of the new model and its general behavior. The ability of the present general method to provide an account for the surface–subsurface competing fatigue mechanisms taking place in rolling bearings is discussed with reference to endurance testing data.
For the lubrication of open gear drives used in different industrial applications such as cement and coal mills, rotary furnaces, or where the sealing conditions are difficult, semi-fluid greases are often used in preference to fluid oils. For girth gear applications the greases are used with a splash or spray lubrication system. The selection of such greases influences pitting lifetime and the load-carrying capacity of the gears, as well as wear behavior
Lubrication management should be standard operating procedure at any manufacturing facility. Vital to both operational and maintenance personnel, a strong, coherent and specific lubrication program will have lasting results in machine efficiency and maintenance. Of course, even those with the best intentions can’t always keep up with the challenges presented day-to-day on the manufacturing floor. Thankfully, PTE is here to help with eight steps to selecting, storing, analyzing and managing your lubrication requirements.
in the performance and life of a rolling element bearing. Less than 10 percent of bearings reach their theoretical L10 life, and poor lubrication can be attributed to 80 percent of those that fall short. Ideally, a lubricant forms a film layer between moving components in a bearing, separating moving parts, minimizing friction and preventing wear between balls or rollers, raceways and retainers. Lubricants also protect metal surfaces from corrosion and moisture, dissipate heat and can even prevent the ingress of contaminants.
Kate, a sophomore studying engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Platteville, has a genuine interest in manufacturing, so it was natural that she attend IMTS. But the other three? My kids? Well, let’s just say that their interests lie elsewhere. Matt, also a sophomore, is studying business at UW-Platteville. Emily, a sophomore in high school, wants to join the Peace Corps. Renee, an eighth grader, wants to be a surgeon.
Here’s what we know about Tremont, Illinois: It’s a small village in Tazewell County, (population 2,400+), holds an annual summer turkey festival (quite popular) and the courthouse is a famous historic site where politician James Shields challenged an “up-and-coming” lawyer named Abraham Lincoln to a duel with cavalry broad swords (they showed up, but the duel never materialized). In 2016, you can add FIRST Robotics Competition World Champion to the village’s rather eccentric list of accomplishments.
In order to analyze the different gear oils suitable for the lubrication of wind turbine gearboxes, five fully formulated ISO VG 320 gear oils were selected. In between the selected gear oils, four PAO base oils can be found: PAOR, PAOM, PAOC and PAOX. A mineral-based oil (MINR) was also included as reference.
Slow speed operation of fan systems within the air handling industry is generally performed due to two reasons: a coast down operation is required for hot (induced draft) fans to cool down before shutdown (often by using a turning gear), and operational efficiency improvements can be achieved during non-peak periods by slow speed operation using a VFD. In either case, when these fans are supported by hydrodynamic bearings, it is the oil film thickness developed from the bearing-shaft interaction that limits the minimum speed that can be maintained without causing premature wear and bearing failure. This paper will present a brief overview of lubrication theory and critical design parameters to achieve slow speed operation.
The season of harvest is upon us. And I don't mean crops, although here in the U.S. Midwest, there's plenty of that going on, too. No, what I mean is knowledge, because in addition to being the end of the growing season, the transition between summer and fall also marks the busiest time of year when it comes to trade shows, conferences and industry gatherings.
The complete Product News section from the December 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
It's a fact that drive systems wouldn't function properly or efficiently without couplings. They quietly go about their business of transferring motion from one drive element to the next. In the PT market today, couplings have the unique challenge of satisfying a variety of customer needs including tighter tolerances, higher speeds and a more versatile selection process.
Global economic demand remains solid - even if you couldn't tell by recent third-quarter results and despite all efforts by U.S. politicians of both political parties. Let's go through what happened and what is coming.
The complete Industry News section from the June 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Amps, Watts, Power Factor and Efficiency; Approximate Load Data from Amperage Readings; Power Factor Correction on Single-Induction Motors.
The following recap looks at some of the exhibitors from Gear Expo that manufacture mechanical power transmission components or provide resources for these components.
Our expert explores standard vs. optimized gears, as well as high contact ratio gearing.
Various surface treatment and bearing technology solutions are explored to solve challenging lubrication regimes.
Global economic activity remains good -- noise about China slowing, notwithstanding -- and despite the ObamaCare debacle, non-Christmas-related consumer spending looks pretty good. Europe is still Europe and China continues to grow 7-8 percent -- even as the government seeks to clamp down on its own shadow banking system. And India remains a mess.
Wichita Clutch helps drive storm simulator at the University of Florida.
Third-quarter earnings are confirming the worst-case scenario, i.e. — not only are energy related end markets in a downturn, but conditions continue to worsen.
Third-quarter earnings confirmed the worst-case scenario — plunging oil prices are whacking almost the entire industrial sector. The theme is hardly new, as the pattern of our headlines has revealed over the past fifteen or so months:
Our “Batten Down The Hatches” call proved timely as the market sold off by about (10 percent) before staging a partial recovery
The revolution goes by many names: machine-to-machine communication, smart manufacturing and the Industrial Internet, to name a few. In Europe, the prevailing term is Industry 4.0. In Germany, where that phrase was coined, the government is putting down 200 million to cultivate a lead in the industry. The McKinsey Global Institute estimates that its potential economic impact will be almost $4 trillion (or more) by 2025. Enthusiastic evangelists will tell you that the Industrial Internet is the most important advance in their industries that they’ve seen in their decades-long careers.
We anticipate no substantive improvement in manufacturing activity. Not in the U.S. or internationally. If anything, headwinds may have become slightly more pronounced because a U.S. — Iran “deal” that everybody hates except a) the Iranian government and b) the Obama administration will result in the release of Iranian oil supply back onto the global market. Oil had rallied from about $50 to $60 over the past month (I like round numbers), but has since roundtripped. Expect further, deeper capital spending cuts in the U.S. oil sector to continue affecting demand for large capital equipment.
The complete Product News section from the August 2014 issue of Power Transmission Engineering
New products within the Industry
First quarter results confirmed our view. Capital expenditures are being slashed in the oil sector, the stronger U.S. dollar is enabling Japanese machinery competitors to gain share in the Middle East and Latin America, and lower soft commodity prices translate into a continuing North American decline in demand for farm equipment.
The complete Industry News section from the October 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
In this study the mechanical shear degradation of lithium-thickened grease was evaluated using an in-house-developed aging rig and a commercial rheometer. It was found that this grease loses its original consistency during aging and shows a two-phase aging behavior. In the first phase, primarily reorientation and breakage of the thickener network take place, resulting in a progressive drop in the grease's rheological properties. After this, the aging is dominated by the breakage of smaller fiber fragments and the grease degrades at a much slower rate.
Airships, gears, robots, steam power and buzzer-beating theatrics highlight the 2017 FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Competition known as FIRST Steamworks.
V-belts look like relatively benign and simple pieces of equipment. They're basically a glorified rubber band, right? Need a replacement? Just measure the top width and circumference, find another belt with the same dimensions, and slap it on the drive. There's only one problem: that approach is about as wrong as you can get.
Using vibration analysis to evaluate machine health has many benefits, and with advances in sensor, recording, and analysis technology, vibration analysis is now within the reach of even small organizations.
A reader wants to know how to figure out the fatigues strength, tooth root tension and other technical values of new, high-performance gear materials.
SKF Product Investigation Center Troubleshoots Critical Rotating Equipment Applications with Analysis, Research and Testing Procedures.
For the past several months, I've been sneaking away from work early every Thursday afternoon to coach my daughter's Science Olympiad team. Those of you who read this column regularly know that I'm a supporter of STEM education programs, and I've encouraged you to participate in those programs wherever possible.
Three electric motor repair facilities share best practices for utilizing copper in motor repair, and recommending new motors to replace older, less-efficient motors
The complete Industry News section from the March 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Energy costs and downtime can be greatly reduced by instituting a motor management plan. Part II of this three-part series specifically addresses the establishment of a motor failure policy and the development of purchasing specifications. Part I addressed the general aspects of a motor management plan, including the first steps of creating a motor inventory and guidelines for motor repair and replacement. Part III will examine motor repair specifications as well as preventive and predictive maintenance.
How to Ensure Reliable Performance, Increased Efficiency and Lowest Total Cost of Ownership.
This is an article about motors - preventive motor maintenance, actually. And something else - mechatronics. In today's high-tech manufacturing and industrial use environments, it is near impossible to talk about equally complex motor maintenance and repair-or-replace protocols without it.
Process Expo and Pack Expo Highlight the Latest Technology for Food & Beverage Applications.
Understanding proper bearing lubrication procedures is critical to ensuring long-term, trouble-free performance. Klüber Lubrication has prepared this explanation as a general guide.
This special advertising section features some of our VIP exhibitors.
Highlights from some of the gear, gear drive, power transmission component, software, materials and related exhibitors at Gear Expo 2017.
Couplings and harsh environment use
A bearing service life prediction methodology and tutorial indexed to eight probable causes for bearing failure and removal are presented - including fatigue. Bearing life is probabilistic and not deterministic. Bearing manufacturers' catalogue (L10) bearing life is based on rolling-element fatigue failure, at which time 90% of a population of bearings can be reasonably expected to survive, and 10% to fail by fatigue. However, approximately 95% of all bearings are removed for cause before reaching their L10 life. A bearing failure can be defined as when the bearing is no longer fit for its intended purpose. For a single bearing, you can only predict the probability of a failure occurring at a designated time - but not the actual time to failure.
Fluid Power, Motion Control and Power Transmission Industries Come Together in Las Vegas to Promote New Solutions.
Hi. My name is Renee. I’m 12. You might remember me from about a year ago, when my dad wrote about me and the home-made motor project we did together (“Make the Connection,” February 2014).
The complete Product News section from the April 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The National Fluid Power Association (NFPA) is an organization consisting of manufacturers, distributors, suppliers and educators working together to strengthen the fluid power market. Its mission is to serve as a forum where all fluid power channel partners can advance fluid power technology and successfully compete in the global industrial market.
Fairchild International, a U.S.-based manufacturer of underground mining equipment, has produced battery-powered DC scoops since the early 1980s. With 17 different models available, Fairchild offers a size to fit any coal mining operation, making it the leader in the industry.
The complete Industry News section from the February 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
When selecting an open gear lubricant for use in a particular application, the method of application used must be considered.
The complete Industry News section from the October 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
It is a simple fact: better lubrication can lead to dramatic energy savings and an improved bottom line. This ought to interest any plant manager who is looking for ways to reduce operating costs, and it is especially significant at a time when stricter government regulations are in direct contradiction to reducing costs. Lubrication reliability is the solution; this article will describe how manufacturing plants can use “lubrication reliability best-practices” to reduce their energy consumption, emissions and operating costs—all at the same time.
Compact loaders are employed where large machines have no access or are over dimensioned. New hydrostatic drives from ZF meet the demanding needs of this market.
The complete Industry News section from the June 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
In most cases, industrial power transmission calls for flexible rather than rigid couplings in order to forgive minor shaft misalignment. For that reason, this article will focus solely on the selection of flexible couplings.
Dovetails, gears and splines have been widely used in aero engines where fretting is an important failure mode due to loading variation and vibration during extended service. Failure caused by fretting fatigue becomes a prominent issue when service time continues beyond 4,000 hours. In some cases, microslip at the edge of a contact zone can reduce the life by as much as 40–60 percent.
The challenge facing OEM procurement organizations is that the organizations themselves need improving before they can be proficient in a cost reduction program.
Grease lubrication has clear advantages over oil lubrication: Grease does not leak easily; it has sealing properties; and it protects bearing surfaces from corrosion. Its disadvantages are grease-life limitations and a limited cooling ability. Moreover, in some applications there is a risk of grease starvation, which leads to reduced lubricating films. However, if the right grease, sealing system and/or lubrication system are chosen, then grease lubrication offers clear benefits. This article summarizes aspects of grease lubrication mechanisms in rolling bearings.
Hydrostatic drive concept gives LinsiTrak flexibility and versatility.
In this Ask the Expert article, Hans Wendeberg from SKF discusses some of the things you need to know when calculating bearing diameters.
All major manufacturers of 3-phase AC induction motors offer "inverter-duty" or "inverter-ready” models, but while these motors have inverter-rated insulation to protect the windings, the bearings--their most vulnerable parts--are too often ignored.
Even when the critical components of industrial power transmission gear drive systems are properly designed, specified and manufactured consistent with application requirements, performance problems can develop over time and failure may follow.
Gear drives deliver power to industrial equipment such as bulk material conveyors, mixers, pumps and paper mills. The reliability that translates into greater uptime and profitability begins by specifying and selecting the proper drives for these critical applications.
What did you learn in school today? This typical parental inquiry is met with several responses but rarely followed with, “The complete and total annihilation of robotic machines in a no-holds-barred death match.”
The complete Product News section from the June 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The Mechanical Power Transmission Association was founded in 1933 as the Multiple V-Belt Drive and Mechanical Power Transmission Association.
Industry leaders will gather to showcase their latest technologies September 23–25, in Rosemont, IL. Presented by trade show organizer Canon Communications, National Manufacturing Week comprises nine manufacturing shows.
Robots are everywhere these days— bots in the factory, bots in space, bots at the airport, bots in the movies and much, much more. But robots in the operating room?
Rolling element or sleeve bearings often are required to operate under extreme conditions. In these instances, it is more important than ever to follow proper lubrication selection and maintenance procedures to maximize effective life and efficient performance.
Implementing a predictive maintenance (PM) program can be tough. Despite its proven success, many companies have been operating the same way for over 50 years and don’t know where to start. Understanding where to start and where to focus is critical. The intention of this article is to give insight to start and sustain an effective program using today’s technology and devices.
New doll and toy set geared for inspiring young engineering misses -- not misters.
With today's smaller, hotter - and overloaded - machinery, specifying the correct lubricant is vital.
News from Timken, Klueber, Sumitomo, NFPA, and more from the April 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering
In today’s increasingly competitive global economy, industries and the companies that serve them are always looking for an edge. Price and quality being routinely accepted as a given, businesses—large and small—are always looking for a little help. For the worldwide bearing industry, that help exists in the form of the Bearing Specialists of America (BSA).
The recent trend toward using segmented laminations as a means to increase slot fill and facilitate automated fabrication of electric machines comes with a penalty of increased core loss at the segment joints.
Honeywell and SAE team up for a unique middle school initiative.
Options abound for increased efficiency in lubrication.
American Bearing Manufacturers Association (ABMA) Standard 9 and ISO 281 give equations for calculating the basic dynamic radial load rating for ball bearings. These equations are based on a number of assumptions, many of which are not valid for thin-section bearings. (Thin-section bearings are described in ABMA standard 26.2.) Nevertheless, many thin-section bearing catalogs report load ratings based on these equations. Kaydon has developed a new method for calculating the dynamic radial load rating for thin-section ball bearings. The new method uses the contact stress and the number of stress-cycles-per-revolution to calculate the capacity. The new numbers are based on five years of actual test results. These equations can also be used to calculate the dynamic radial load rating for four-point contact ball bearings, which are not covered in ABMA standard 9 or ISO 281.
Servo system from Bosch-Rexroth helps create more efficient beverage palletizer.
In an industrial application, equipment uptime is vital for on-time performance and profitability. The rotating members of industrial machines are subject to the highest degree of wear and are more susceptible to failure than non-moving parts. Bearing surfaces are the most critical and often the most expensive portion of the rotary assembly; it is imperative to protect these components. The primary protector of these components is the industrial seal.
In the history of machine tools, spindles have been very good relative to other bearings and structures on the machine. So quality professionals have developed a cache of tools—-ball bars, grid encoders displacement lasers, etc.—-to help them characterize and understand the geometry of the structural loop. But as machine tools have improved in their capability and precision, and the demands of part-geometry and surface finish have become more critical, errors in spindles have become a larger percentage of the total error.
While gear and bearing manufacturers engage in a wind energy arms race, the robotic automation industry has its sights set directly on the sun. Solar power—wind energy’s somewhat neglected step brother—has been gaining ground in alternative energy since 2001.
High-speed transit system the dreamwork of ideators or idiots?
Recently I had a disturbing conversation with a colleague here at the office. During the conversation, it became clear to me that my co-worker -- a really intelligent guy whom I respect a lot -- had no idea how even the most simple electric motor works.
In this issue’s cover story, Stefan Hantke describes an evolving marketplace that requires smarter components and more integrated solutions. In fact, Hantke, who was recently named head of global industrial sales for the Schaeffler Group, goes so far as to predict that within a few short years, every bearing will have a wire coming out of it.
Machine and equipment manufacturers today are feeling more pressure than ever to reduce costs without sacrificing machine performance — a balancing act difficult to achieve. OEMs often overlook a simple solution that can have a positive, long-term impact on profitability for themselves and their customers, i.e. — the elimination of bearing lubricant.
Today’s competitive industrial gear marketplace demands products with excellent reliability, high capacity and low noise. Surface-hardened, ground tooth gearing predominates, but the legacy tooth forms handicap further improvements in capacity and noise generation. Vehicle and aircraft equipment use tooth forms not found in the standard tables to achieve better performance — with little or no increase in cost. This paper will propose adopting these high-contact ratio forms to industrial use.
News From the Industry
Four types of gear devices with great transmission ratios (simply called great ratio gears or GRGs) are discussed in this paper. They are strain wave gearing devices (SWGs), trochoidal gear reducers (TGRs), hypocyclic gear reducers (HGRs) and James Ferguson-type planetary drives (JFDs). The structures, advantages and basic performances of these four devices are compared. The latest design and strength analysis methods are also introduced. To conclude, the future tendencies of GRGs are predicted.
Questions by readers answered by Experts in the field.
When comparing bearing suppliers, engineers are often left with few options other than to compare dynamic load ratings and corresponding life calculations. Of course, we can look at steel and manufacturing quality; but if we are comparing sources of similar quality, those items may not provide a large contrast. It often surprises people to learn that bearing capacities are calculated values, not tested values. Lately, however, a trend is emerging for bearing suppliers to increase their ratings for higher performance bearings that have premium features such as higher quality steel and specilaized heat treatment. Bearing companies are under intense competitive pressure to make every feature add to the dynamic capacity of their bearings because it is very well understood that an increase in capacity adds to the bottom line.
Excellence Awards Competition, sponsored by the Metal Powder Industries Federation, were recently announced at the POWDERMET2015 International Conference on Powder Metallurgy & Particulate Materials. Receiving grand prizes and awards of distinction, the winning parts are examples of PM’s precision, performance, complexity, economy, innovation and sustainability. The winning parts show how customers from around the world are taking advantage of PM’s design advantages.
In this paper, the influences of various gear parameters on the mesh stiffness are systematically investigated by using the finite element method. The comprehensive analysis shows that contact ratios are the key factors affecting the fluctuation value of mesh stiffness.
The U.S. Space Shuttle fleet was originally intended to have a life of 100 flights for each vehicle, lasting over a 10-year period, with minimal scheduled maintenance or inspection. The first space shuttle flight was that of the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102), launched April 12, 1981. The disaster that destroyed Columbia occurred on its 28th flight, February 1, 2003, nearly 22 years after its first launch.
A thermo-mechanical model of a splash lubricated one-stage gear unit is presented. This system corresponds to a first step towards the design of a hybrid vehicle gearbox that can operate up to 40,000 rpm on its primary shaft. The numerical model is based on the thermal network method and takes into account power losses due to teeth friction, rolling-elements bearings and oil churning. Some calculations underline that oil churning causes a high amount of power loss. A simple method to reduce this source of power losses is presented, and its influence on the gear unit efficiency and its thermal capacity is computed.
News about latest products
There are thousands of sizes and types of standard bearings. In many applications, specifying a standard bearing yields an effective result.
Reducing losses and increasing profits by instituting a motor management plan is what this series of articles is all about. Here in Part I, we discuss how to create a motor inventory and establish repair-or-replace motor guidelines. Subsequent topics in this three-part series will address (Part II) motor failure policies and purchasing specifications, and (Part III) repair specifications and preventive and predictive maintenance, respectively.
In 1991, Needelman and Zaretsky presented a set of empirically derived equations for bearing fatigue life (adjustment) factors (LFs) as a function of oil filter ratings.
News From Around the Gear Industry
EDITORS’ NOTE: “The Applications of Bevel Gears” is the excerpted third chapter of Dr. Hermann Stadtfeld’s latest book — Gleason Bevel Gear Technology (The Gleason Works, Rochester, New York, USA; All rights reserved. 2014; ISBN 978-0-615-96492-8.), which appears here unabridged through the kind graces of Dr. Stadtfeld and Gleason Corp. Future installments will appear exclusively in Power Transmission Engineering and Gear Technology magazine over the next 12 to 18 months.
According to the Department of Energy (DOE), more than half of all electrical energy consumed in the U.S. is used by electric motors. To address this, several years ago, the DOE conducted a technical study as to what could be done to raise the efficiency levels of “small” motors. After years of study and litigation, the Small Motor Rule (SMR) was passed that covers two-digit NEMA frame single- and three-phase ¼ through 3 horsepower motors in open enclosures.
The air-oil, two-phase flow inside the multiple-point, oil-jet lubrication ball bearing was studied based on CFD (computational fluid dynamics) theory and technique, and compared with single-point, oil-jet lubrication. The results indicate that the air-oil distribution inside the bearing with multiple-point, oil-jet lubrication is more uniform than single-point injection.
Seems simple enough doesn't it? It is most decidedly not. Indeed, one can make the case that--aside from uppermost management (or ownership)-- no one else in a heavy/high-tech manufacturing concern has more ownership of the company's everyday needs and necessities than the purchasing department.
Is industrial maintenance another lost art, or is there hope that we can train the next generation of maintenance professionals?
The following news items offer the latest on lubrication and seal technology in the power transmission market. From bearing greases to high-performance seals, these products will help extend the service life and manufacturing capabilities for a wide range of industrial sectors.
IFPE offers the right balance of technology and education.
Collaboration moves bearing modeling and simulation software forward
A reader asks what are the required parameters to properly specify a gear.
This paper outlines the design considerations that go into construction of a drive system in order to explain the importance of specific data, why it is required, and where design freedom is necessary. Apart from loads and speeds, interface dimensions and site specific conditions are also needed. Deciding up front which gear rating practice to select can affect the torque capacity of the drive train by ~15%.
The chemical and physical properties of gear oils may change, depending - more or less - upon their formulation and the environmental conditions under which they are used. This is why - after three years of use in a wind turbine - a gear oil was examined to determine if indeed changes were evident and if the protection of the gears and rolling bearings still met the same requirements as would be expected of fresh oil. Our findings revealed that the existing gear oil - as well as its ability to protect the gears and rolling bearings - had degraded very little compared to fresh oil.
"Well begun is half done," a quote that most reference materials attribute to Aristotle, certainly applies when selecting mechanical power transmission products. A selection process that is well thought out at the start can ensure that the product selected will be properly sized and appropriate to the application at hand.
Varying installation requirements for worm gears, as, for example, when used in modular gear systems, can necessitate grease lubrication - especially when adequate sealing for oil lubrication would be too complex. Such worm gears are being increasingly used in outside applications such as solar power plants and slew drives. While knowledge about the operating conditions is often appropriate, the basic understanding for load capacity and efficiency under grease lubrication is quite poor. Investigations done at FZG and sponsored by FVA/AiF are shown here to give an impression of the basic factors of load capacity and efficiency. The results of the investigation indicate a satisfying quality of calculations on heat, load capacity and efficiency based on characteristic parameters of the base oil with only slight modifications to the methodology known from DIN 3996 or ISO TR 14521.
In the Stott household, we love math. Well, maybe not everyone in my household loves it equally, but since they were in kindergarten, whenever one of my children asked me for help with math homework, my reply has been an instant and cheerful “We love math!”
At SKF, we believe in the longterm development of the U.S. industrial economy. The reindustrialization is supported by a strong university-based research network, a competitive workforce and energy supply from domestic energy resources. However, there are still challenges, particularly regarding the availability of skilled labor. Business, education and governments have a responsibility to work together to ensure this is not the bottleneck in U.S. industrial development. I am particularly pleased with and support the work the National Association of Manufacturers is doing in this area.
The growth of worldwide energy consumption and emerging industrial markets demands an increase of renewable energy shares. The price pressure coming from coal, oil, nuclear and natural gas energy - combined with enormous worldwide production capacities for components of wind turbines - make wind energy a highly competitive market. The testing and validation of gearboxes within the test rig and the turbine environment attract a strong focus to the needs of the industry. The following contribution sums up the typical process requirements and provides examples for successful system and component verifications based on field measurements.
The complete Industry News section from the August 2014 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
A reader asks: I've determined that a stainless steel bearing is the best option for my application. I'm being asked to specify the grade of stainless steel in my product design. I'm not sure which grade to select and specify. Can you help?
Columnist Brian Langenberg provides a current outlook update, key findings from a recent energy sector conference, and takes another look at education and employment.
As with just about everything else in the manufacturing world — and all which that universe entails — it depends. After all, that’s why the art of manufacturing is a process — not a one-system-fits-all discipline. Yes, once that process has been properly designed and correctly implemented for a given manufacturing production need, it may well run like the astest, smoothest cookie-cutter-type operation ever devised.
News Items About ATI Industrial Automation
1 ATI Industrial Automation 2017 Technology Fair Set for August (May 25, 2017)
ATI Industrial Automation will hold its Annual Technology Fair on August 10, 2017 at its Orion Township, Michigan facility. The one-day e...