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Highlights from some of the gear, gear drive, power transmission component, software, materials and related exhibitors at Gear Expo 2017.
A brief overview of the induction motor, including the basics of construction, performance and variable speed drives.
Most of you who read this magazine have a close relationship with gears and gear drives. According to our surveys, 75% of you recommend, specify or buy them. It's a shame, then, that the majority of you will miss Gear Expo (Oct. 24-26 in Columbus, OH) this year.
A discussion of the basics in DC drives, DC motors, AC drives, AC motors and synchronous motors.
Explosion-Proof Motors in Division 2 Areas and DC Drive Fundamentals
In the process of applying industrial drive products, we occasionally are misled into believing that we are applying horsepower. The real driving force is not horsepower - it is torque. This paper is developed to impart a deeper understanding of torque, its relationship to horsepower, and the types of loads we most frequently encounter.
Referencing a June 2014 Article, âœHigh Gear Ratio Epicyclic Drives Analysis,â by Dr. Alex Kapelevich: I have designed a small compound epicyclic gearbox with common planets. Sun = 10 teeth Planet = 14 teeth Ring Gear stationary = 38 teeth Ring gear output = 41 teeth profile shifted onto a 38 tooth pitch diameter. Carriers are simply cages for the planet alignment and location. According to your article, and according to my calculations and the prototype I have built, my inputto- output ratio is a reduction of 65.6:1. I am using a ~ VG1 viscosity grease and Nylatron materials for the gears and carriers.
The performance of high-speed helical geartrains is of particular importance for tiltrotor aircraft drive systems. These drive systems are used to provide speed reduction/torque multiplication from the gas turbine output shaft and provide the necessary offset between these parallel shafts in the aircraft. Four different design configurations have been tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center, High-Speed Helical Geartrain Test Facility. The design configurations included the current aircraft design, current design with isotropic superfinished gear surfaces, double-helical design (inward and outward pumping), increased pitch (finer teeth), and an increased helix angle. All designs were tested at multiple input shaft speeds (up to 15,000 rpm) and applied power (up to 5,000 hp). Also two lubrication, system-related, variables were tested: oil inlet temperature (160â“250° F) and lubricating jet pressure (60â“80 psig). Experimental data recorded from these tests included power loss of the helical system under study, the temperature increase of the lubricant from inlet to outlet of the drive system and fling-off temperatures (radially and axially). Also, all gear systems were tested with and without shrouds around the gears.
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Gearing is an essential component in conveyors. The material handling industry appears divided between those who favor high-end three-stage helical bevel gearboxes and those who rely on less expensive worm gearing. But thereâ™s an often over-looked alternative, the two-stage helical bevel gearbox.
For the lubrication of open gear drives used in different industrial applications such as cement and coal mills, rotary furnaces, or where the sealing conditions are difficult, semi-fluid greases are often used in preference to fluid oils. For girth gear applications the greases are used with a splash or spray lubrication system. The selection of such greases influences pitting lifetime and the load-carrying capacity of the gears, as well as wear behavior
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Implementing a power-on-demand concept based on variable speed drives allows for energy saving in any application that involves pumps or hydraulic systems. And when used in combination with an intelligent wiring and communication system, relevant machine data can also be easily recorded - the basis for comprehensive power management.
Standardized calculation methods such as ISO 6336 and DIN 3990 already exist to determine the load distributions on gears inside a planetary gearbox, but by their very universal nature, these methods offer varying results depending on the gearbox design. Double helical gears, in particular, can benefit from more specific, complex algorithms to reach a maximum level of efficiency. Double helical gears interact with the rest of the gearbox differently than helical or spur gears, and thus benefit from different analytical models outside the standardized methods. The present research project describes the algorithm to determine the load distribution of planetary gearboxes with double helical gears.
As the old adage goes, "There is more than one way to skin a cat." In the early stages of any project, system designers are faced with choices; whether they are designing a new application or retrofitting an old one, they need to determine what is the most efficient, economical and practical way of completing the task at hand. Though there are usually at least two viable means to accomplish the task, the first step is always to review and weigh the merits of each option.
This paper presents a joint project conducted by Ashwoods Electric Motors and Oerlikon Fairfield that uses planetary drives with an integrated electric motor. Current solutions used in production of off-highway vehicles rely upon large, heavy and inefficient brushed DC or induction motors, coupled to a planetary gearbox. This presents a number of challenges to the vehicle designers such as: limited vehicle range, limited space around the motor/drivetrain, and motor durability. The proposed integrated system utilizes an Oerlikon Fairfield Torque Hub, widely used in off-highway vehicles, and the Ashwoods first-to-market, interior permanent magnet motor. How these products are integrated, i.e. incorporating a brake solution, represents a market-changing product. Using interior permanent magnet (IPM) technology in the motor design means the motor can be up to 70% lighter, 70% smaller and 20% more efficient than traditional motors used in off-highway traction applications.
I'm not able to get a good connection between the pulley and shaft in my drive assembly. Could you explain the various ways of connecting a pulley to a shaft to prevent the pulley from slipping?
As gear efficiency is improved in small steps, it is important to be able to distinguish actual improvements from scatter that can occur while testing. An FZG back-to-back gear test rig was used to investigate how the assembly and re-assembly of the same test setup affects the measurements. A spread in torque loss between one assembly and another of the same test setup were observed. Rig conditions also affected the spread in input torque. With knowledge of how the spread in torque loss varies due to assembly, test results could be distinguished between changes due to assembly and actual differences between tests.
Synchronous drives are especially well-suited for low-speed, high-torque applications. Their positive driving nature prevents potential slippage associated with V-belt drives, and even allows significantly greater torque carrying capability. Small pitch synchronous drives operating at speeds of 50 ft/min (0.25 m/s) or less are considered to be low-speed. Care should be taken in the drive selection process as stall and peak torques can sometimes be very high. While intermittent peak torques can often be carried by synchronous drives without special considerations, high cyclic peak torque loading should be carefully reviewed.
A thermo-mechanical model of a splash lubricated one-stage gear unit is presented. This system corresponds to a first step towards the design of a hybrid vehicle gearbox that can operate up to 40,000 rpm on its primary shaft. The numerical model is based on the thermal network method and takes into account power losses due to teeth friction, rolling-elements bearings and oil churning. Some calculations underline that oil churning causes a high amount of power loss. A simple method to reduce this source of power losses is presented, and its influence on the gear unit efficiency and its thermal capacity is computed.
EDITORSâ™ NOTE: âœThe Applications of Bevel Gearsâ is the excerpted third chapter of Dr. Hermann Stadtfeldâ™s latest book â” Gleason Bevel Gear Technology (The Gleason Works, Rochester, New York, USA; All rights reserved. 2014; ISBN 978-0-615-96492-8.), which appears here unabridged through the kind graces of Dr. Stadtfeld and Gleason Corp. Future installments will appear exclusively in Power Transmission Engineering and Gear Technology magazine over the next 12 to 18 months.
The changing landscape of hydraulic drives is leading many fluid power specialists to quickly adapt to using variable speed pump drives. Optimum utilization of these drives requires, in many cases, additional system design considerations.
ContiTech and Wöhr Team up for Unique Residential Solution.
This paper outlines the design considerations that go into construction of a drive system in order to explain the importance of specific data, why it is required, and where design freedom is necessary. Apart from loads and speeds, interface dimensions and site specific conditions are also needed. Deciding up front which gear rating practice to select can affect the torque capacity of the drive train by ~15%.
Dave Soma, the mechanical supervisor at Leland Olds Station, a coal-fired power plant near Stanton, North Dakota, says he and his maintenance team care deeply about keeping the plant running and providing people electricity, especially in the dead of winter.
The complete Product News section from the December 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
In recent years the estimation of gearbox power loss is attracting more interest â” especially in the wind turbine and automotive gearbox industry â” but also in industrial gearboxes where heat dissipation is a consideration as well. As new transmissions concepts are being researched to meet both ecological and commercial demands, a quick and reliable estimation of overall efficiency becomes inevitable in designing the optimal gearbox.
News about latest Products in the Industry
With advances in modern technology reducing demand for envelopes, manufacturers are finding it increasingly hard to justify investment.
Process Expo and Pack Expo Highlight the Latest Technology for Food & Beverage Applications.
Tooth contact analysis (TCA) is an important tool directed to the determination of contact patterns, contact paths, and transmission errors in gear drives. In this work, a new general approach that is applicable to any kind of gear geometry is proposed.
One of the key challenges in the mining industry today is maintaining throughput in the face of ore grade quality that has declined by 40 percent in the last decade.
This paper presents a physically grounded calculation method to determine the efficiency of worm gear drives. This computation is based on the Institute of Machine Elements, Gears, and Transmissions (MEGT) tribological simulation, which can determine the local tooth friction coefficients (Ref. 1). With this knowledge other power losses such as the bearings, oil churnings and seals power losses can also be calculated.
The improvement of the energy efficiency of industrial gear motors and gearboxes is a common problem for many gear unit manufacturers and end-users. As is typical of other mechanical components, the radial lip seals used in such units generate friction and heat, thus contributing to energy losses of mechanical systems. There exist today simulation tools that are already helping improve the efficiency of mechanical systems â” but accurate models for seal frictional losses need to be developed. In this paper SKF presents an engineering model for radial lip seal friction based on a physical approach.
As with just about everything else in the manufacturing world â” and all which that universe entails â” it depends. After all, thatâ™s why the art of manufacturing is a process â” not a one-system-fits-all discipline. Yes, once that process has been properly designed and correctly implemented for a given manufacturing production need, it may well run like the astest, smoothest cookie-cutter-type operation ever devised.
The latest mechanical power transmission products from Nord Drivesystems, Gearing Solutions, Ogura Industrial, Stafford Manufacturing, Rexnord, Portescap, Steinmeyer, Intellidrives, J.W. Winco and Zero-Max.
Efficiency, power-loss reduction and enhanced performance are just a few examples of what the PT community wants from their gears and gear drives in 2019. Some companies are doubling down on service and assembly capabilities while other others are integrating components in an effort to increase flexibility and control.
Worm, bevel, and parallel shaft gear units were installed at two breweries to provide the necessary process control.
The complete Industry News section from the August 2019 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The complete Industry News section from the June 2019 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Chain and sprocket drives of one form or another have been driving machines and conveying materials for over a thousand years. The chain manufacturing industry has developed numerous types and sizes of drive chains. Although it is a mature form of power transmission, there are still many industrial applications for which drive chain is suited. It is economical, resistant to shock loads, easy to install, has the ability to transmit high torque, operates in hostile environments, and is efficient. Chain and sprocket drives are highly engineered and manufactured within close tolerances.
Enhancing Safety, Quality, Delivery and Cost.
How one gearbox manufacturer took an existing design and transformed it to meet the needs of this demanding environment.
The following article is a round-up of the latest linear motion product and industry news items featured at www.powertransmission.com and on social media.
Condition Monitoring Technology Evolves for Gear Drives, Gearmotors and Gearboxes. Here's a look at what some leading manufacturers are offering.
In planetary gear systems of high power density and high gear ratio, helical gears create undesirable tilting moments on the planet gears; therefore, spur gears are still preferred for planetary gears -- a special challenge with respect to noise. Specifically, the different behavior of planetary gears with sequential and symmetric gear mesh is explained in this paper.
Durability requirements must be balanced with the need for lightweight and low-cost solutions which meet noise and vibration targets whilst also exhibiting excellent efficiency.
PTE Examines Gearmotor and Gear Drive Technology
Intelligent drive technology in the cowshed
The following special product news section examines the latest products and technologies in motion control.
The complete Product News section from the March 2019 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
The technology continues to evolve in chain- and belt-driven systems
If you can find that magic bullet that will reduce the machining process, you can achieve meaningful efficiency gains. It is imperative that check-weighers or in-motion weighing systems remain both accurate and efficient while attaining a consistently smooth operation because they dynamically weigh products as they move across the belt.
In this work a physically based method for the tribological investigation of worm gears is presented.
Framo Morat and Dunkermotoren Produce Drive Systems for Automatic Guided Vehicles.
The complete Industry News section from the August 2013 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
A worm drive is a geared power transmission device in which a worm meshes with a worm gear to transmit power between two non-intersecting shafts that are oriented at a right angle. The worm drive has been an active and challenging topic of technological study since Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519).
The complete Product News section from the September 2018 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Gear drives focus on longevity, quality and customization.
A Practical Comparison of Planetary and Orbitless Gear-Heads.
The complete Product News section from the February 2019 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Health monitoring or condition monitoring has been used for many years on machines and in plants where the cost of an outage is high. It allows failures to be anticipated and maintenance or repairs to be scheduled for the least loss of production, as well as avoiding unnecessary periodic maintenance.
Approximately one quarter of all servo motors around the world require some type of gear reduction in their applications. From large satellite dishes to precision medical devices, gearboxes boost torque and reduce speed for servos in order for them to be sized more efficiently. While gearbox fundamentals haven't changed much over the past 20 years, their effectiveness has improved significantly, driven mostly by the need to accommodate advancements in servo technology.
Machinists Inc. is integrating the machinery, equipment and know-how of The Gear Works-Seattle Inc.
Gearmotor manufacturers find new ways to push the envelope. (With Sidebar on new alternative to planetary gearboxes)
Gear drives deliver power to industrial equipment such as bulk material conveyors, mixers, pumps and paper mills. The reliability that translates into greater uptime and profitability begins by specifying and selecting the proper drives for these critical applications.
This issue we cover frame sizes and two-speed motors in our continuing series of articles, courtesy of Baldor Electric, dedicated to motor basics.
The complete technical calendar from the February 2017 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Beginning with this initial installment , and with the gracious permission of ABB/Baldor Electric, we are pleased to announce the beginning of a new series -- Baldor Basics: Motors. This is a collection of basicsdriven, motor-intensive articles authored by former Baldor engineer Edward Cowern, PE, a respected name by many in the electric motor industry. During his tenure at Baldor, Cowern - now enjoying his retirement - was tasked with producing a number of motor- and basics-related tutorials, primarily in response to a steady flow of customer questions regarding motors. Today's customers continue to ask questions and seek answers to address their various motor-related issues. As with Cowern's original introduction to the series, we hope you find these articles useful and would appreciate any comments or thoughts you might have for future improvements, corrections or topics.
If youâ™re an electrical engineer you know how an electric motor works; if you arenâ™t, it can be extremely confusing. Therefore, hereâ™s the simplified explanation (or the âœhow an electric motor works for dummiesâ version) of how a four-pole, three-phase AC induction motor works in a car.
Letâ™s be clear about something up front here: Delta Gear does not make parts for lawnmowers. This is a fairly flippant point that falls under the timeless, clichéd designation of âœgoes without saying.â Yet, not all that long ago,Tony Werschky had to say it.
I need help determining the diametral pitch needed to achieve the closest center-to-center distance for 2 spur gears. The 1st gear is a 34-tooth and the 2nd gear is a 28-tooth. The center-to-center distance between the gears needs to be as close to 2 1/8" as possible.
This issue our Baldor Basics series continues with the topics of motor temperature ratings and metric motors.
Fans, blowers and other funny loads are addressend, along with RMS Horsepower loading.
Conservation through lighting alterations using different bulbs, ballasts and light sources is well understood and easy to achieve. The use of improved efficiency three phase induction motors has not been as accepted. There are a number of reasons why conservation efforts with motors have not been as popular.
Amps, Watts, Power Factor and Efficiency; Approximate Load Data from Amperage Readings; Power Factor Correction on Single-Induction Motors.
Understanding proper bearing lubrication procedures is critical to ensuring long-term, trouble-free performance. Klüber Lubrication has prepared this explanation as a general guide.
Part 1: There seems to be a lot of confusion about the voltage standards for motors and why they are structured the way they are. Part 2: The effect of low voltage on electric motors is pretty widely known and understood, but the effect of high voltage on motors is frequently misunderstood.
A good deal of confusion exists regarding the factors that determine an industrial electric bill. The following information is presented to help sort out the various items on which billing is based, and to offer suggestions on measures to help control and reduce electric utility bills.
The Calendar for events happening in the industry
A reader asks: I've determined that a stainless steel bearing is the best option for my application. I'm being asked to specify the grade of stainless steel in my product design. I'm not sure which grade to select and specify. Can you help?
The challenge facing OEM procurement organizations is that the organizations themselves need improving before they can be proficient in a cost reduction program.
When designing a spur-crown pair, is there a formula, guideline or design guide for adapting the spur teeth for the radial angle of the teeth in the crown?
Everything started in 1800 when Volta developed the first DC battery. Faraday used the DC battery to develop the first electric motor. It used brushes to transfer the battery voltage and current to the rotating disk rotor. This was in mid-1831. Thus was born the brush DC motor.
This paper summarizes the chemical, metallurgical and physical aspects of bearing steels and their effect on rolling bearing life and reliability.
With today's smaller, hotter - and overloaded - machinery, specifying the correct lubricant is vital.
In most cases, industrial power transmission calls for flexible rather than rigid couplings in order to forgive minor shaft misalignment. For that reason, this article will focus solely on the selection of flexible couplings.
Mounted ball bearings are everywhere in industrial applications. They serve critical roles in keeping a manufacturing operation running smoothly and in ensuring that equipment functions properly and reliably. So why might it be advisable to spend significantly more for a dimensionally comparable bearing from one supplier versus another?
This article summarizes some common hurdles, issues and questions encountered by the newer and casual users of tapered roller bearings.
How does one draw and mesh involute gear teeth in AutoCAD?
"Well begun is half done," a quote that most reference materials attribute to Aristotle, certainly applies when selecting mechanical power transmission products. A selection process that is well thought out at the start can ensure that the product selected will be properly sized and appropriate to the application at hand.
What are the best methods to adjust tapered roller bearings?
Seems simple enough doesn't it? It is most decidedly not. Indeed, one can make the case that--aside from uppermost management (or ownership)-- no one else in a heavy/high-tech manufacturing concern has more ownership of the company's everyday needs and necessities than the purchasing department.
At the recently held annual meeting of the Bearing Specialists Association, there was a lot of talk about online sales channels and how Internet retailers are changing the way industrial products are researched, sourced and purchased.
Failure to specify the proper motor for use in a hazardous location can have serious consequences - lost production, extensive property damage, and even loss of human life. Selection of the proper motor requires an understanding of Underwriters Laboratories' (UL) and National Electrical Code (NEC) class, group and division designations and the T code letters.
The final installment in our Baldor Motor Basics series covers 50 Hz requirements, as well as motors wet or damp environments.
Compact loaders are employed where large machines have no access or are over dimensioned. New hydrostatic drives from ZF meet the demanding needs of this market.
A new preventive maintenance program at a leading New England Ivy League university demonstrates how the push for more sustainable "green" building management has led to a growing awareness of a chronic, widespread problem with HVAC motors—electrical bearing damage and failure.
SPS-IPC Drives 2011, which took place in Nuremburg, Germany in November, covered all components down to complete systems and integrated solutions in the electric automation industry.
The complete Product News section from the December 2011 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Synchronous motors controlled by variable speed drives are bringing higher efficiencies to industrial applications.
This article is designed to help describe the selection process of a reducer to be used in the parcel handling industry. It will go over the different applications for which gearboxes are used throughout parcel handling facilities such as UPS, FedEx and DHL.
The complete Product News section from the June 2012 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Fairchild International, a U.S.-based manufacturer of underground mining equipment, has produced battery-powered DC scoops since the early 1980s. With 17 different models available, Fairchild offers a size to fit any coal mining operation, making it the leader in the industry.
Our product focus includes the latest technology in gears and gear drives from the leading manufacturers.
Hydrostatic drive concept gives LinsiTrak flexibility and versatility.
Even when the critical components of industrial power transmission gear drive systems are properly designed, specified and manufactured consistent with application requirements, performance problems can develop over time and failure may follow.
Beverage industry conveyor pours on advantages in distribution center. Case study describes the new conveying systems at Motion Industries Canada.
All major manufacturers of 3-phase AC induction motors offer "inverter-duty" or "inverter-readyâ models, but while these motors have inverter-rated insulation to protect the windings, the bearings--their most vulnerable parts--are too often ignored.
Given that many different hydraulic systems recommend the use of either frequency converters or cyclic control (soft starter technologies), the question must be asked - Which one of these solutions is the most cost-effective in reducing energy consumption and providing the most satisfactory payback time?
While safety functions have been integrated into drives packages for some years now, the current trends are very exciting, from many angles. Today, a full complement of safety functions can be implemented at the front-end of a system design on all types of production machines, including printing, packaging, converting, materials handling and other equipment used throughout American industry.
The Royal Danish Theatre has occupied the heart of Copenhagen for centuries and recently upgraded to a new control system featuring Sprint Electric DC drives to extend the lives of the existing motors, keeping replacement costs down. The Swedish stage design and technology company Visual Act retained most of the original motors and mechanics while providing a much-needed facelift to the stage.
The complete product news section from the June 2009 issue of Power Transmission Engineering.
Entrust enlists Advanced Machine & Engineering for 7-axis, 2-spindle performance.
The complete Industry News section from the February 2008 issue of Power Transmission Engineering
Modern drivetrains with voltage-source inverters not only offer advantages like, for example, variable speed operation, increased efficiency and higher dynamics, but also an increase in failures caused by induced parasitic currents.
The federal government estimates that manufacturing uses about one third of the energy consumed in the U.S., so manufacturing companies can play an important role in building a sustainable future.
If youâ™re replacing your belts more than once per year, itâ™s time to analyze your drive. From belt crimping damage to high belt installation tension to sprocket misalignment and adverse environmental conditions, this guide walks you through how to identify the reasons behind premature failure and makes recommendations on corrective and preventive measures.
Sunnen grows product portfolio with motion control solution from Siemens.
In this special news section, the editors of Power Transmission Engineering have gathered the latest product news and information from the gears and gear drives sector.
The primary driver of an airport baggage handling queue conveyor must be able to operate under increasingly demanding operating conditions, including frequent starting and stopping. The selection of the primary driver of the queue conveyor is dependent on multiple criteria, including dimensional requirements and durability characteristics.
One of the driving forces behind the industrial revolution was the inventionâ”more than a century agoâ”of the electric motor. Its widespread use for all kinds of mechanical motion has made life simpler and has ultimately aided the advancement of humankind. And the advent of the inverter that facilitated speed and torque control of AC motors has propelled the use of electric motors to new realms that were inconceivable just a mere 30 years ago. Advances in power semiconductorsâ”along with digital controlsâ”have enabled realization of motor drives that are robust and can control position and speed to a high degree of precision. The use of AC motor drives has also resulted in energy savings and improved system efficiency. This paper reviews the development and application of inverter technology to AC motor drives and presents a vision for motor drive technology.
Much of the industrial energy being consumed by systems is wasted through inefficiency. For this article, a system will be defined as the following components working together: electrical input power, variable frequency drives, induction motors, gearboxes and transmission elements (chains, belts, etc.).
Servo system from Bosch-Rexroth helps create more efficient beverage palletizer.
The mechanical components of your drive system play a major role in overall system efficiency. Don't cut corners.
News Items About ASI Drives
1 ASI Drives Acquired by ACCEDIA Group (March 10, 2020)
ASI Drives, the trusted provider of transaxles and wheel drives for electric machines, is pleased to announce that it has been acquired b...